Thursday, July 31, 2008

How strange! The sky is blue!

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Look up! Just do it. What do you see? Stupid question, eh? You see the ceiling of course. When you look upwards during a sunny day while picnicking however, you see the blue sky. Ever wondered why the sky is not green nor but blue?

Before answering this question, let's go back to the basic physics of light. Sorry, but here I go…

Light is a kind of energy, which travels in waves. In fact, light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. Light forms only one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields called the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves travel through space at an amazing 300 00km/s. Therefore this is also the speed of light.

When you see white light from the bulb, you are actually seeing the seven colours of the rainbow! This is because white light consists of a combination of these seven colours.

Each of these colours has a different wavelength, frequency and energy. Wavelength is the distance between the crests of the waves. The frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. Note that the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency and the less energy it contains.

·Violet: Shortest wavelength, highest frequency and energy ·Red: Longest wavelength, lowest frequency and energy

Now back to our main topic. That blue colour of the sky is due to an effect known as the Rayleigh scattering. As light from the sun moves towards Earth's atmosphere, not all the colours are actually able to pass through that atmosphere. Most of the longer wavelength colours do pass (red, orange and yellow for sure) but the shorter wavelength ones however are mostly absorbed by gas molecules found in the atmosphere. Absorbed blue light is then bounced back (radiated would be a better word) in all directions. This makes the shy to appear blue!

You would however ask me why it's the blue rays, which get scattered, and not the indigo nor the violet rays (the other colours pass through the atmosphere remember – there's also blue that pass through but it then gets scattered). Well in fact, the shorter the wavelength, the more the colour gets scattered. Violet, which has the shortest wavelength of all colours of the rainbow thus gets scattered more than blue rays do. Our eyes however are much more sensitive to blue than to violet and the sky therefore doesn't appear to be violet but blue (in reality the sky is violet-indigo!).

Now do take the time making the following: Take a look at the horizon (if you're at the seaside) and note the sky's colour there. No, it's not as blue as the rest of the sky, is it? It's much paler. This is because for the blue light to reach your eye, it has to travel more. Blue light will thus pass through more air consequently getting scattered more. Conclusion: less blue light reaches your eyes than compared to blue light from just above you.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'.

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Straddling the Science/Magic Line: A Look At Magnetic Therapy

Author: Maya Talisman Frost

What's the difference between science and magic? It's our understanding of what makes something happen.

If magic is hocus-pocus, science is simply well understood hocus-pocus. Fire? Solar eclipse? Volcanic eruption? Earthquake? Once we can explain it, it becomes science. But sometimes we're stuck straddling that science/magic line.

Consider magnets.

Remember when you were a kid back in elementary school and you first discovered the wonder of magnets? What a thrill it was to explore the possibilities! There's nothing like messing with natural forces to spark a child's imagination.

Thirty five years later, I'm still fascinated by magnets. Magnetic therapy has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. Some believe that magnets help restore the flow of blood through the capillaries, therefore assisting in the flushing of toxins that may accumulate due to injury or illness. Magnets have been used to relieve the pain of arthritis, carpal tunnel, migraines, joint injuries, menstrual cramps, and much more. There has been some research in the last couple of years indicating that magnetic therapy may offer relief to those suffering from depression and attention deficit disorder.

Yet we're not sure how--or if--this really happens. It's got to be some kind of placebo effect, right? We're all looking for simple solutions to help us feel better. Sometimes we want things to work so much that they actually DO. Does that mean it's all a bunch of hooey?

I've learned a lot about magnets since my husband started developing and distributing Bodylinx, a line of inexpensive magnetic bracelets. Tom stated right from the beginning that he wanted to downplay the jewelry's possible health benefits. He likes the bracelets because they're fun—you can play around with the magnetic links and rearrange them. Though he remains reluctant to promote a healing property he doesn't really understand, some of his customers are strong advocates magnetic therapy.

We believe whatever we tell ourselves. If we want to think that a bracelet helps our arthritis, we are free to believe that. And if it turns out to be true, did it work because we believed it or because there is some kind of science/magic at work?

As important as it is to question our beliefs regularly, it's also crucial that we become willing to suspend disbelief. Fifty years ago, nobody would have believed that we'd have spacecraft landing on Mars and sending us digital images of the craters there. As a species, we have broken barrier after barrier by daring to believe the impossible one small idea at a time.

We need to accept that there may be therapies that work even if we can't prove they do or understand how it happens. This doesn't mean we have to be gullible or stop questioning. We simply need to entertain the possibility.

Whenever possible, I like a hefty dose of science to back up my beliefs. There is a magnetic field present on our planet. Fortunately, we don't often shoot out into space and have to deal with the physical effects of that. What about those who do?

Remember the early days of space exploration? We had to wait several hours after splashdown before the astronauts appeared at any press conferences.

It turns out that human bodies must be properly reintroduced to the earth's magnetic field. In recent years, the scientists at NASA have learned how to facilitate this physical readjustment. They now have the astronauts change into special suits embedded with magnets as soon as they land. They slip into their orange suits and voila--they're ready for the cameras!

There is a great deal we are learning about magnets, and it's not just to help those who've blasted off into space for a while. Magnetic wraps have been used for decades to help racehorses heal after injuries. There is plenty of anecdotal evidence from trainers to support the continued use of magnetic therapy for horses. Horses don't tend to say much about their beliefs, so it's hard to point to the placebo effect as a possible explanation.

The most compelling idea about magnetic therapy is that we may need it now more than ever. We used to walk barefoot in the forests and plains. We had direct contact with the earth as we slept, hunted, and harvested. We were surrounded by vegetation and natural rock formations.

Not anymore. We've built concrete sidewalks, roadways, foundations, and buildings. We travel in cars and trains, essentially encapsulating ourselves. We've created a world of barriers between the earth's natural forces and our bodies. It's reasonable to consider that this may be affecting us physically in ways that are difficult to diagnose.

The earth has so much to teach us. Sometimes we know what works long before we understand why it does so.

We've never questioned the fact that being surrounded by nature helps us feel soothed, refreshed, and invigorated. Scientific research now shows us more specifically how the earth helps us feel better. We benefit from the negative ions near the ocean, our brains respond to the binaural beats present near waterfalls or during rainstorms, and our bodies react positively to a restored connection to magnetic forces.

I'm not likely to latch onto the latest pharmaceuticals or tout the benefits of new-fangled remedies. But the old ones? There's no big company poised to reap huge rewards by promoting them, and consequently, we're not likely to hear about them on the evening news or be bombarded with television commercials praising their potent power. I always like supporting the underdog, and in this case, that underdog is backed up by plenty of science of the unprofitable kind.

We would do well to restore our connection to the earth and the powerful forces that help us maintain our health naturally. How wonderful that we can benefit from negative ions, binaural beats and magnetism without dealing with health insurance or spending a lot of money at the drugstore.

The next time you take a walk in the woods, stroll along the beach, or stretch out in a meadow, remember the magic of magnetism. Recapture the wonder you had as a child, and celebrate the fact that sometimes the simplest solutions are still the ones that fill us with awe.

About the author: Maya Talisman Frost is a mind masseuse. Her work has inspired thinkers in over 80 countries. To subscribe to her free weekly ezine, the Friday Mind Massage, visit http://www.massageyourmind.com. To learn more about Bodylinx magnetic bracelets, visit http://www.bodylinx.com.

Tuesday, July 29, 2008

The future of the Human Species - Part 1: Are we in danger?

Author: K.A.Cassimally

The sun, that celestial body which has always fascinated the human species, which differentiates night and day, which when angry, produces the fascinating auroras, is father to us all: humans, animals and plants. The sun is the father of life on Earth! But similarly to giving life, it will also take it away. This will be life's doomsday. No way can we escape from this if we stay put.

How do we escape? Where do we take refuge? Where will we start all over again? These are the main questions. Ok, I admit! Earth is not going to be affected by the sun right now. This is true. But it was only an illustration I made! There are many other dangers waiting.

Forget about the sun taking life away for a minute and think of a simple piece of rock floating in space. Then suddenly, it decides to crash on Earth killing all its inhabitants. What do we do if an asteroid dives on us?

You may think that we have the required technology to avoid collision but I personally, am not so sure! To prove this let me inform you that only 90% of all these threatening objects are actually found by scientists. What about this other 10%? Nothing! No space agencies till now are trying to do anything. Do you think we are really prepared, now? Is life something we can play with?

Apart from asteroids, there are also other menacing-to-hit-Earth objects including comets. Remember the comet Shoemaker-Levy9? It wanted to obtain a better view of Jupiter. The result: engulfed by the planet that is, the comet simply crashed into Jupiter. This may happen to Earth too. If a comet were to hit Earth, it would be a real disaster. Extinction of life quasi-instantly! And humans for sure do not have the technology to avoid a comet impact.

If we do not want to be extinct, we will have to flee. We have to go elsewhere. But where? Where next?

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

Monday, July 28, 2008

Kevlar - The Wonder Fiber

Author: Taylor Hartley

Kevlar - The Miracle Fiber

You've heard of Kevlar before. It's the material used in bullet proof vests. To date, 3,000 officer's lives have been saved. Here, we'll discuss what makes Kevlar so incredibly strong and its applications.

What you can take away from this article:

* The basics of the synthetic Kevlar

* The molecular secret behind Kevlar's strength

* Kevlar's modern day applications

Above, I refer to Kevlar as a synthetic. This means that nowhere in nature does Kevlar occur; it is man-made. Kevlar was discovered in 1965 by DuPont. Before this, scientists had known of the strength of polymers, but had been unable to produce them. By using 'light elements,' DuPont was able to create a very strong polymer. Using these 'light elements,' Kevlar is able to offer its services at an incredibly light weight.

Kevlar makes use of a poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide as one of its ingredients. This allows for amazing heat resistance. In fact, Kevlar can protect from heat exposure of up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit. As you might imagine, this is quite helpful when working in a foundry.

* The molecular secret behind the strength of Kevlar

First off, think of the molecular chains that make up Kevlar as spaghetti. Now, which is going to be stronger, a plate of cooked noodles or a box of uncooked noodles? That's right, the box of sturdy (relatively speaking, of course) uncooked pasta is much stronger because all of the chains lay side by side, adding layers of strength. It's imperative for Kevlar's molecular chains to be fully extended and aligned perfectly to achieve its impressive stiffness and strength. FYI: The arrangement in which the molecular chain is placed is known as a crystalline structure.

So, we know that when the molecular chains are laid out like long strands of stiff, uncooked spaghetti, their strength is fantastic; but there's a problem. If you turn a box of uncooked spaghetti upside down, all the noodles fall out! Well, the Kevlar chains have a force (most easily related to magnetism) holding them together called hydrogen bonds. These electrostatic forces between the molecules hole the chains together like super glue.

* Modern day applications of Kevlar

Now that we're through all the technical jargon, let's talk about Kevlar as it relates to us today. Kevlar is popular in underwater constructions, as once it's submerged, Kevlar is 20 times stronger than steel! In the air, it's 5 times stronger than steel (on an equal weight basis). And you can thank Kevlar for windsurfing sails that easily withstand wind force of 60 mph. Certainly you remember that Kevlar is also a key ingredient in bullet proof vests!

Not only is this wonder-material used for saving lives, it's also used for saving fingers. Kevlar is knitted into gloves to make a fine mesh that is extremely cut, burn and rip resistant. Kevlar gloves are available in a variety of shapes and thicknesses. They provide dexterity, comfort and durability all at once. They work well in many situations. For lighter work, you could try an extra fine knit Kevlar glove. These are great for everyday environments requiring protection from small blades or sharp objects.

As your work environment gets more complex, so must your protection. If your work environment is littered with brambles and sharp edges, look to a set of terry cloth Kevlar knit gloves. Here you'll get double protection. First off, the tough Kevlar material holds it's own, while the small 'terry loops' help prevent snags.

Still don't feel safe enough? You can find another level of safety with Kevlar sleeves. These tough sleeves protect your arms from cuts, burns and bruises. Protective sleeves are great for environments with sparks. They come in very handy for foundry workers. Combined with a set of Kevlar hot mill flame retardant bandtops, you can rest assured your hands are safe.

For the most extreme environments, Kevlar is simply a must. Its functions reach much further than gloves and sleeves, but when you're working with dangerous applications, hand protection is paramount. To learn more about Kevlar gloves and sleeves, go to http://www.unitedglove.com.

About the author: Taylor Hartley researches and reviews products and services for the online community.

Sunday, July 27, 2008

The future of the Human Species - Part 4: Will we create our future?

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Experiments have shown that human physiology becomes very weak in an unknown environment to the brain. Humans then start to panic. Problem is that humans do not necessarily want to show their uncertainty. So they hide it. When they actually hide this uncertainty, humans start to get stressed and this is the big problem.

When we get stressed, we become moody and cannot concentrate on what we are doing. Imagine an astronaut getting really frustrated in the middle of a mission on the International Space Station. This may be catastrophic! He seizes a hammer floating nearby in the zero-gravity of space and demolishes the ISS's main computer. The whole crew will be in a most-probably-fatal danger. No doubt the guilty astronaut will realise the consequence of his action afterwards but it will be too late.

Trained astronauts themselves, have big difficulties adapting to a space mission of up to two months. Think of a manned mission to Mars. This journey takes a minimum of two years to accomplish plus there is the return journey too. Humans will have to live in shuttle conditions with no privacy for four years that is 1461 days (1 more day from a leap year included). You will agree with me that it is hard to make a journey of this many days properly. Bear in mind that a journey of only 60 days seems difficult. What should we do then?

We presently have the technology to go to Mars. The problem lies with the persons who are going to board on the shuttle. Many scientists have concluded that humans like us will have much difficulty in overcoming the stress and frustration. But humans unlike us may be able to do it! Imagine a human being with 4 arms instead of 2 (the 2 additional arms take the places of the 2 legs). He will be able to crawl everywhere on a shuttle like a spider. This spider human will specialise himself in this field. I am not joking! Scientists say that they can create a human with 4 arms and no legs.

It seems easy to do so too. Now that we are starting to unlock the secrets of the DNA and genes things, we are also starting to modify them. As you know DNA contains all information about a person and if it is modified, the person too is modified. So, if my DNA is modified then, I too will be modified: physically, mentally or emotionally. DNA modification seems to be the key for going elsewhere that is away from Earth.

Anyway, if ever we go on another planet, colonize it and live on it then the appearance of us, humans, will change. The physical appearance of a person depends on the physical environment surrounding that person. So if ever we go on Mars, our eyebrows will become more important and they will therefore expand in size. Why our eyebrows will evolve is because Mars is dustier than Earth in terms of sand and other small particles.

We know that Earth is not permanent and we know that we will have to go away one day if we want to live on. We also know that Mars, which till now has appeared to be the ideal place is going to go in smoke like Earth too. We are not much prepared to teraform Mars though but this is only a matter of time. With new technologies, new ideas will burst out till the best one is proposed. Then we can go to Mars. We may however have to transform ourselves to remain alive though. Will we be able to do all this? Well a real spider man would be a great thing to see.

If ever we succeed in doing all these things though then we may say this clearly and loudly, "Humans are one step above everybody else neither in this solar system nor in this galaxy and not even in this universe but in this world."

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

Saturday, July 26, 2008

NABGG (Nat'l Assoc. of Black Geologists & Geophysicists) 23rd Annual Conference 9/15 - 9/18, 2004 - Austin, Texas

Author: Robert Johnson

The NABGG (National Association of Black Geologists and Geophysicists) will hold it's 23rd annual conference on Wednesday, September 15 – Saturday, September 18, 2004.

HOUSTON, TX (PRWEB) August 18, 2004 -- Please plan to join us, as we convene our 23rd annual meeting that will be held in Austin, Texas with the University of Texas at Austin serving as the host institution. Heralding excellent research and technology, the University of Texas at Austin's Geoscience Department is a world class department that has consistently produced some of the most influential experts in the field of geoscience.

This year's conference theme "Partnering Our Different Worlds" conveys the concept of the connectivity of the different aspects of geoscience in our society, including Oil & Gas, Environmental Sciences, Academia, Professional Societies, and Governmental Agencies.

Some of the highlights include: Keynote Speakers:

-Dr. Sandra K. Johnson, Manager, IBM Linux Technology Center -Dr. Jerry Harris, Head of Geophysics Department, Stanford University -Dr. Edwin Dorn, Dean, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. -Dr. William L. Fisher, Director of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin.

Technical Presentations, Career Fair, Tours, and Community Service Activities

In addition, many Texas state leaders are expected to attend this national convention. The convention promises to be an exciting one, so please begin planning to join us. We hope to see you in Austin!

About NABGG NABGG strives to increase minority representation in the geosciences through partnerships with academia and by mentoring undergraduate as well as graduate students. We are committed to the continuous training and development of aspiring and practicing geoscientists.

Visit NABGG online: www.nabgg.org

NABGG 4212 San Felipe, Suite 420 Houston, Texas 77027-2902 nabgg_us@hotmail.com

About the author: Vice President , NABGG

Friday, July 25, 2008

The future of the Human Species - Part 2:Where next?

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Many scientists are currently exploring the idea of going to live on Mars. Mars is the nearest planet to Earth and scientists actually think that the red planet resembled our Earth some million years ago. Some other scientists from the NASA Ames Center have already started the creation of a 'Mars town' and many others are in fact already experimenting it. Of course, these experiments are done on Earth itself but this 'Mars town' has an environment practically alike to that of Mars. And the perfect place for the conduction of this experiment is in Texas, USA.

The astronauts working in these towns wear their space suit and also do everything they would really have to carry out if they ever go to Mars in the future.

But Mars would be, like Earth a temporary place for humans. When the Sun starts engulfing the planets, Mars will disappear barely hours after the earth. So Mars only seems to be the ideal place to spread the human species. It is also a good location to send humans if ever there is a disaster on Earth. By saying disaster, I mean asteroid collision and things like that.

If we, humans do not want to disappear when the earth or mars get swallowed up, we will have to go and live beyond the solar system. But are there any planets outside our solar system prepared to support life? Astronomers' answer is: "If Earth can support life, why can't other planets do same too? Astronomers have already discovered a Jupiter-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star so why not an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star next?" Astronomers clearly think that, yes, there has to be other planets alike to Earth waiting to be colonised out there. And maybe, these planets will in the future hold our species.

But in all cases, this is exactly what some astronomers have in mind: transplant the human species to these planets before it is too late.

Before colonising places outside our system though, it is logical to try and colonise our neighbour, Mars. To achieve this goal though, many other problems have to be taken into consideration. How do we transform a dusty planet like Mars into one more or less alike to our Earth? How should we proceed? Before we plan to perform any of these though, we should ask ourselves whether we are really prepared to go out there where nobody has ever gone.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

Thursday, July 24, 2008

Our Bodies, Our Fears

Author: Ransy Reynis

Our Bodies, Our Fears

I think this is worth reading it.

As they reach for the duct tape, Americans say they're more anxious than ever. Scientific research about how our brains and bodies process fear can teach us how to live with long-term stress

By Geoffrey Cowley NEWSWEEK

Feb. 24 issue -- Anthony Lepre started feeling awful almost as soon as Tom Ridge put the nation on high alert for a terrorist attack last week. The normally well-adjusted Los Angeles chiropractor started tossing and turning instead of drifting off to sleep at night. He awoke in the middle of the night short of breath, his heart pounding. And the sound of his telephone seemed a sure sign of bad news.

BY MIDWEEK, HE was rushing off to Costco to stock up on fruit juice, bottled water, peanut butter, canned tuna ""and extra food for my cats Monster, Monkey and Spike."" He also picked up a first-aid kit, six rolls of duct tape and a bulk package of plastic wrap to seal his windows. ""The biggest problem was that I felt helpless,"" he says, ""completely powerless over the situation."" The health-conscious 46-year-old even found himself chomping pizza and sweets, figuring a few treats would help him ""forget about the situation for a while.""

And so it went for millions of Americans. The recent barrage of bad news--nukes in North Korea, snipers in Maryland, a failing economy, an imminent war, a threat of domestic terror--has left this privileged nation feeling unusually vulnerable and uncharacteristically anxious. Gas masks and biohazard suits are selling as briskly as duct tape and plastic sheeting. Winter vacations are on hold. Psychotherapists are working overtime. And even people who soldiered on after 9-11 are now blinking. Thirty-five-year-old Kateria Niambi, a lifelong Brooklynite who works as a marketing director in lower Manhattan, never thought of leaving New York during the grim fall of 2001. Yet she recently bought a house in suburban New Jersey and now plans to pack up her two daughters and move. ""It was like, 'Where can I go that my kids will be safe?' "" she says.

HELPLESSNESS AND HEALTH

Iraqi civilians are no doubt asking the same question. Israelis and Palestinians have asked it for decades. And though America's current worries may seem unprecedented, the current situation has nothing on the 1918 flu pandemic or the Cuban missile crisis. Yet none of that makes living with fear any easier. As Drs. Afton Hassett and Leonard Sigal of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School wrote recently, we're living in a ""chronic heightened state of alertness and ... helplessness,"" prompted by a ""poorly defined ... danger that could strike at any time in any form without warning."" Such feelings can be as unhealthy as they are unpleasant, impairing immunity, interrupting sleep and exacerbating everything from acne to ulcers. ""The psychological state of fear affects us biologically,"" says Los Angeles psychiatrist Carole Lieberman. ""People who are anxious drink and eat more. They have more accidents. They're more likely to get colds or suffer heart attacks."" In short, as University of Michigan neuroscientist Stephen Maren puts it, a brain system designed to keep us from getting eaten is now ""eating away at us.""

Thanks Ransy Reynis

About the author: Ransy Reynis is an Independent Wealth Builder and a Web designer.

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Wednesday, July 23, 2008

The future of the Human Species - Part 3: How do we engineer an Earth-like environment?

Author: K.A.Cassimally

The process of making an unearthly world more earth-like for the purpose of supporting human life is called teraforming - Steven Wintergerst.

Teraforming Mars is the only way we, humans can live and reproduce thus starting all over again on the red planet. As stated above, teraforming transforms any world unlike Earth into an inhabitable place for humans. Of course we cannot convert another planet, Mars for example, 100% into Earth. However Mars must resemble Earth in the following aspects: 1.Thicken the small existing atmosphere and make it comprise the important gases required for life, in their needed volume. 2.A new magnetosphere should be set up. A magnetosphere will protect inhabitants and every other object on Mars from being beamed with cosmic rays from outer space. All lives are in danger of being destroyed by cosmic rays as they may destroy DNA bonds of common life. 3.Make the temperature more or less similar to that of Earth. As you know, Mars is colder than Earth as the red planet is further away from the sun that Earth is.

Some issues however cannot be changed. The main ones are: 1.Gravity of Mars is much lower than that of Earth. If ever humans settle there, they will have to cope with this. They will use much less effort to move about on Mars. But they will then be condemned to stay there unless they exercise regularly. This is simply because their muscles will become weaker and weaker and smaller and smaller in size. These muscles will not be able to cope with the much larger effort needed to walk on Earth. 2.Mars is dead. They are no forests nor any bush. In fact there are no greens. Mars is forced to remain as this unless we re-melt its core (that's a joke by the way).

As written above, Mars has a small atmosphere and it should be prevented from completely vaporizing off. One proposed strategy to prevent the vaporization is to put satellites around Mars but only just outside the planet's orbit. When the satellites fly near the atmosphere, they will pull the thin atmosphere. When the same satellites following their own orbit go further away from Mars, the atmosphere will fall closer to the planet thanks to Mars's gravity. The latter has pulled its atmosphere back down. When this process is done over and over again, the Martian atmosphere will thicken.

Another problem is a magnetosphere. A magnetosphere is a region of space surrounding in this case, Mars. The magnetosphere is thus dominated by the object's magnetic field so that charged particles (found in cosmic rays) are trapped in it. Mars doesn't have any such protection and we should try to set one up. Because I don't have any extremely good ideas about how to solve this problem, what I am going to say may seem like science fiction but who knows… How about installing giant electromagnets in strategic places of Mars? These will act as a big magnet and this is exactly what the magnetosphere is.

Many people think that to make Mars habitable, we only need to take the planet's temperature into consideration. Well this is not true of course but these people will also insist that to succeed in making the temperature of Mars same as that of Earth, we only have to crash an asteroid or even a comet into Mars.

Now when you come to think of it, the basic essence of this idea is. If ever we manage to crash a space rock on Mars and this is yet another problem, the temperature of Mars will gradually increase. This is due to the fact that greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide will be released. They will then trap heat making the planet become hotter and hotter. Unfortunately, scientists are working on teraforming so as to manage to make man, one day, live on Mars! The latter's air thus has to be, well… breathable! If the asteroid/comet theory is put in practise, the percentage of these greenhouse gases will mount instantly and will take ages to drop back to normal.

To me huge mirrors might work out alright. These will orbit Mars and reflect light and heat from the sun to the red planet. Another idea is that instead of using these man made mirror-satellite, why not use natural mirror-satellites? Mars has two natural satellites orbiting it namely Phobos and Deimos. We could cover these with mirrors! They may then act as the mirror-satellites and reflect light and heat onto Mars.

Many of the present ideas of how to teraform Mars seem ridiculous and only good for science fiction movies but isn't teraforming itself still in the realm of science fiction? Maybe these ideas will, one day, from part of the revolutionary ideas mankind has had; but maybe they will not.

Teraforming is a dream. And this dream lies on the shoulders of the next generation of scientists and astronauts. But we really should bear in mind that teraforming Mars is only a small step in human flight for survival. When the sun blows up, both Earth and Mars will disintegrate. Teraforming Mars is only an experiment before really doing the ultimate job: teraforming a planet outside the solar system for humans to live in peace at least for some millenniums. Can humans bear a 2 year-long voyage in shuttle condition though? Won't we be obliged to modify ourselves to make this Mars experiment a success?

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

Tuesday, July 22, 2008

I saw a(n) UFO!

Author: K.A.Cassimally

It all happened at the beach, few months ago. My uncles, my dad and myself were in a conversation, which quite amazingly resulted in talking about Mars. Being the family's astronomy expert, I pointed to the red dot in the sky. My uncles looked up and laughed afterwards.

"Just because we're nuts in astronomy, doesn't mean we are idiots!"

Well they were idiots in this particular case. Mars was truly there; up in the night sky. The second time I tilted my head 75o backwards however, I saw a faint spot of light moving from right to left. I realised that the object must be some gigameters away and yet it was moving extremely fast. Within 15 seconds, it had passed out of sight! I thought that I was the only one who saw the white little dot sprinting but no! Dad had seen it too and this was proof (to me) that I was not 'night' dreaming (unless he was too).

I could've written major article about that sighting: UFO sighting in Mauritius. I could've phoned or emailed or faxed (or any other communication tool you know-ed) the CIA, NASA and SETI. But I didn't. Although I believe in extraterrestrial life, I find it tough to have faith in 'flying saucers'.

Nevertheless, I connected to the internet (my bill usually approach the $37 mark per month) and searched for UFO on Google.mu. I came up with different results namely an article entitled 'The UFO Phenomenon'. It is in this article that I learnt what exactly was a UFO besides being an acronym for Unidentified Flying Object. But how do we know that what we have just seen is a UFO?

'An Unidentified Flying Object is anything seen in air or briefly on the ground that looks like an unfamiliar object and still cannot be identified after the report has been studied by scientifically qualified persons.'

Searching for the UFO's definition was the first step in checking whether that white dot I saw was really a UFO. The second step was to actually examine the components of the definition and ask myself the following questions:

·A UFO is anything seen in air or briefly on the ground that looks like an unfamiliar object…

Was that thing I saw familiar? No, so till there that white little dot is a UFO!

·…and still cannot be identified after the report has been studied by scientifically qualified persons

Well I didn't phone anybody qualified in science because… I knew that that thing I saw up in the sky must've been a satellite from the quasi-start. No UFO then.

But is it really important to prove whether UFOs exist or not? I don't think so. Of course if a true UFO is discovered, this would mean that intelligent life does exist elsewhere but do you really think we will accept that fact? Or will the military decide to bombard the 'flying saucer'?

Well it's fortunate that I didn't phone the CIA, NASA or SETI . Because I would have received some severe cranial injuries due to the broomstick assaults!

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358

Monday, July 21, 2008

Longevity - Can Fat Cells Dictate How Long a Human Survives?

Author: C Bailey-Lloyd/Lady Camelot

According to the September Issue of Popular Mechanics, a report written by Jim Wilson explains how human beings may some day have the capability to survive to be 180 (one hundred eighty) years old!

Based on research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(http://web.mit.edu/biology/www/facultyareas/facresearc h/guarente.shtml) and Professor Leonard P. Guarante; genetic makeup that rules our individual ""time-clocks"" can be virtually erased.

* How is this possible? Every person has DNA fragments dubbed telomeres Our telomeres are specifically designed to extend our lives. These telomeres are copied from genetic material in our chromosomes. As mitosis occurs, these telomeres pass to our newly formed cells. As we age, however, our cell information becomes illegible - similar to ""...a document that is photocopied too many times..."" [1] Once this happens, our cells are depleted of telomeres before our chromosomes are completely corrupted. Without telomeres, our cells no longer have the vital information to reproduce themselves. Based on this research, our maximum human lifespan - theoretically - could typically range from 120 to 180 years of age IF we can instruct our genes how to tell our body to lose fat as opposed to storing it.

* So what does fat content have to do with longevity? According to studies which began halfway in the 20th century; yeast, worms and lab rats who sustained themselves on the brink of starvation lived substantially longer than their well-nourished counterparts. Genetically tied to our personal genepools are WAT (White Adipose Tissue) cells; otherwise known as fat cells, our bodies automatically preserve fat for future unsurities. Aside from starvation ditets, Professor Guarente is optimistic that research will lead to a drug that may bind the single protein (Sirt1) (which directs the body's ability to store fat in WAT cells) and trick it into thinking that it needs to release fat as opposed to saving it. In this sense, we could - hypothetically speaking - have our cake and eat it too. And perhaps, live to be nearly two centuries old!

The moral dilemmas of super-long, life expectancies could inevitably trigger social and economic controversies. In closing, I leave you with my own thoughts on this topic, based on a satirical analogy from MountainWings.com:

The Dragonfly

""Once, in a little pond, in the muddy water under the lily pads, there lived a little water beetle in a community of water beetles. They lived a simple and comfortable life in the pond with few disturbances and interruptions.

Once in a while, sadness would come to the community when one of their fellow beetles would climb the stem of a lily pad and would never be seen again. They knew when this happened; their friend was dead, gone forever.

Then, one day, one little water beetle felt an irresistible urge to climb up that stem. However, he was determined that he would not leave forever. He would come back and tell his friends what he had found at the top.

When he reached the top and climbed out of the water onto the surface of the lily pad, he was so tired, and the sun felt so warm, that he decided he must take a nap. As he slept, his body changed and when he woke up, he had turned into a beautiful blue-tailed dragonfly with broad wings and a slender body designed for flying.

So, fly he did! And, as he soared he saw the beauty of a whole new world and a far superior way of life to what he had never known existed.

Then he remembered his beetle friends and how they were thinking by now he was dead. He wanted to go back to tell them, and explain to them that he was now more alive than he had ever been before. His life had been fulfilled rather than ended.

But, his new body would not go down into the water. He could not get back to tell his friends the good news. Then he understood that their time would come, when they, too, would know what he now knew. So, he raised his wings and flew off into his joyous new life!""

~Author Unknown~ MountainWings.com

Longer lives - longer civilizations? Some thoughts to ponder... C. Bailey-Lloyd/LadyCamelot

****************************************************

© Longevity - Can Fat Cells Dictate How Long a Human Survives? 2004 - All Rights Reserved By, C. Bailey-Lloyd/Lady Camelot

C. Bailey-Lloyd/LadyCamelot is the Public Relations' Director for Holistic Junction -- Your source of information for

Acupressure Practitioners ;

Chiropractic Schools ; Longevity Medicine; Insightful Literature and so much more!

References: [1] PM Magazine, ""Live to Be 180"" [2] Massachusetts Institute of Technology [3] Telomere.net

***PLEASE CONTACT AUTHOR FOR ARTICLE USE PERMISSION***

About the author: C. Bailey-Lloyd/LadyCamelot is the Public Relations' Director for Holistic Junction -- Your source of information for

Acupressure Practitioners

Sunday, July 20, 2008

How Glow Sticks Work

Author: Mrs. Party ... Gail Leino

How Glow Sticks Work...

Glow sticks are fun party supplies .  When sending out your party invitations , think of the interesting Chemistry involved with your party favors .  Glow sticks work by a chemical reaction called ""chemiluminescence"" which causes light to be generated.  (That's a trivia question for some party games !)  By breaking up the word chemiluminescence into 2 parts, chemi and luminescence we can better understand.

Luminescence is emission of light not caused by a rise in temperature (the object emitting light stays cold). The light is released by atoms returning from ""excited"" (charged) state to normal ""ground"" state.  It means, an object which glows, first must absorb energy to get into ""excited state.""  That energy will be released (in form of light) by the object returning to the ground state of energy.  The energy can be supplied in many ways, but in our particular case of glow sticks the energy is supplied by a chemical reaction (what makes the ""chemi"" in chemiluminescence).  Typical glow sticks as chemical reactants use a hydrogen peroxide solution (which is called the ""activator""), a solution of phenyl oxalate ester and a fluorescent dye (which makes the color).  The activator is stored in a thin glass capsule.  When the glass capsule is broken by flexing a glow stick the activator is released, and mixing the components (shaking the glow stick) initiates the reaction.  Depending on components used, the chemical reaction can last (glow sticks can glow) from a few minutes to many hours.  When using glow sticks as party supplies , wait until that last moment to shake them.  Heating the glow sticks(providing extra energy) will speed up the reaction, what will result in brighter light but will shorten the glow time.  The reaction will slow down in low temperatures the light will dim, but the glow time will be longer. For any party theme including Mardi Gras party , Luau Party , Cowboy Hats theme, Character party , Bridal Showers , Super Bowl , Baby Showers , Wedding or a holiday event like Christmas , Hanukkah or Halloween remember to include light sticks and Turn Out the Lights!

About the author: Mrs. Party... Gail Leino is the internet's leading authority on giving the best possible party , using proper etiquette and manners while also teaching organizational skills and fun facts.

Saturday, July 19, 2008

POSTCARD FROM A PERPLEXING PLANET

Author: Theolonius McTavish

(c) Theolonius McTavish 2004. All rights reserved.

Seeking a spot of serenity somewhere in the universe, I recently booked a deep-discount dodgy berth on the 'White Elephant Express Space Shuttle', to a little known place in a galaxy far, far away.

"IT" (otherwise known as HD 36405.b) is not your average "oddball" exo-solar planet made of rock that wobbles on its end and zips around a nearby star in less than 2.46 days.

Most linear thinkers have a great deal of difficulty even comprehending why on earth anyone in their "right mind" would be interested in visiting a planet called "IT". Not being a linear thinker with an investment in the "right" answer, I didn't give a hoot. After all, what does one (who walks on water and listens to miffed mortals all day long) do for a frigging night off, now I ask you?

If truth be told, (after reading random excerpts from "The Itty Bitty Bunkum Book About Life, the Universe and Practically Everything Under the Sun Not To Mention Stuff Going On In Remote Galaxies), I was simply delirious. According to its noted author, Dr. Jarn Leffer, "IT is a 'must-see' for those with little time on their hands and a passionate interest in Innocuous Things."

As planets go, "IT" is a pretty ho-hum celestial pit-stop with perhaps one exception… the welcome notice that reads, "Cosmic Cowboys - Welcome to the furthest unexplored outreaches of the Galaxy … Home to the Flop Fairy and Oodles of Gadflies!"

"IT" is populated by colonies of giggling, green grasshoppers . What else would you expect to inhabit a far-flung, fantasy-challenged hellhole like this? But, what made "IT" strictly speaking a strange place was the fact that the inhabitants munch on green, biodegradable garbage bags just for fun. Lacking masticating capabilities, the gadflies process their food by vigorously jumping up and down on it. No wonder they have no need for fast-food franchises, strip malls or landfills!

Anyway, I picked up this picturesque postcard of the blessed ballyhooing buglugs. They look perfectly happy but don't be deceived. In reality, they're just a gang of glad-handing grasshoppers. They don't play golf, eat burgers, or drink beer -- and none can frost a rock! Come to think of it, apart from the company of bugs and the elusive flop fairy, this pathetic planet has precious little going for IT!!

To put ""IT"" bluntly, life on "IT" is just shy of a tittynope*. The jolly green grasshoppers and the carefully manicured green fairways with sand traps as far as the eye can see certainly make for an utterly harmless world. Regrettably, without a pair of golf clubs, a dimpled white ball, and the notion that 19th hole even exists on this planet -- "IT" is about as fun as bag of toads!

Life Lesson 42: Remember to talk to your travel agent before ever embarking on a flight of fancy to a planet called "IT" in a galaxy named "Have-a-Nice-Day"!!

__________

*""Tittynope"" for you whiffling word-peckers means ""a small quantity of anything left over"".

If you want to know what those green, glad-handing grasshoppers from ""IT"" look like -- ask any four-year old, or failing that request some help from a Flying Saucer Club member.

About the author: Theolonius McTavish is a somewhat spaced-out time-traveller (of minor relevance and importance in the great scheme of things). When not probing odd things happening somewhere in the depths of the universe, he enjoys chinwagging with all manner of merry folk at www.quippingqueen.blogspot.com

Friday, July 18, 2008

Subtle Energy for Healing; The Work of Dr. Yury Kronn

Author: Boyd Martin

In 1933 came the first hint that something was horribly wrong with Modern Physics' view of the universe. The galaxies and star clusters were moving away from each other, and doing it in ways that just couldn't be possible given the basic assumptions of science at the time. From that day forward, scientists have been baffled and befuddled as the view of reality continued to depart from the mechanized nuts and bolts world of the 19th Century, into a fuzzier, more etheric and maleable one. The more scientists observed, the deeper the conundrum became.

By 1997, the Hubble Telescope was in full operation, and with this expanded view of the universe, the conclusion became that ""something""--some kind of energy--has been continually rushing into the universe, pushing galaxies apart. It was dubbed ""Dark Matter"" because it couldn't be seen or measured, only deduced. This Dark Matter theory began explaining things in strange new ways for modern physicists, who were concluding that up to 95% of the mass of the universe couldn't be accounted for--an embarassing situation for many scientists...

However, these conclusions opened up huge possibilities for the understanding and verification of many forms of ancient medicine, as well as early theories about how the universe was formed and how matter is created. Enter Dr. Yury Kronn.

After spending nearly 20 years deep in research into quantum mechanics and dark matter, and serving as a professor at Moscow University, Dr. Kronn began to feel the constrictive effects of the Soviet on his work, as well as the work of his colleagues. In 1982, Dr. Kronn, together with ten other Russian dissidents, organized the ""Trust Group,"" the first independent movement in the history of Russia for Trust and Peace between Russia and the Western world. In 1987, Dr. Kronn was again part of Russian history when he chaired the Disarmament Section of the first Moscow International Symposium for Humanitarian Problems, which was broadcast around the world. The KGB and Russian authorities persecuted him for his social activities. Finally, he was able to immigrate as a political refugee to the U.S. in 1988. Dr. Kronn arrived in the United States to start a new life with only a suitcase and $150.

Still on his mission to export his knowledge for the good of humanity, Dr. Kronn's immediate application of his research was in medicine. With the U.S. alternative health business booming, Dr. Kronn found many eager ears for his theories and his work, and soon was able to construct the Subtle Energy Field Infusion Generator (SEFIG).

The SEFIG had the unique ability to separate the ""dark matter"" or subtle energy from the electromagnetic energy residing in any substance. It was able to extract and ""save"" this subtle energy ""signature"" and then generate this signal and infuse it into any object. Associations with alternative medicine practitioners, medical doctors and scientists, provided ample opportunity to test the effects of this subtle energy infusion on people. ""You know that traditional Chinese medicine and philosophy use the term 'Chi' for the energy which, according to them, sustains life in all living organisms,"" says Dr. Kronn. ""Indians use the term 'Prana' for this same universal force. Actually each culture has its own term for this force. My technology is based on equipment that allows access to the world of that mysterious force we call subtle energy.""

Another Dr. Kronn breakthrough was the discovery of different sub-divisions, or frequencies, within the subtle energy domain. In fact, he found that any substance had its own subtle energy signature. Additionally, by borrowing from the ancient modality of acupuncture, Dr. Kronn was able to extract the energetic signatures of the human acupuncture meridians, and infuse this energy into an ingestible substance, such as an ionic mineral solution. Says Dr. Kronn, ""We print vital energy patterns onto magnetic tapes, infuse them into liquid trace minerals, crystals, oils and creams. Energy patterns can be infused into any substance capable of storing information. These energy infused substances serve as delivery tools of the patterns to the human energy system. We call them 'energy tools.'""

Test and after test, and extensive clinical use confirmed the same, consistent results among practitioners. Each time a client was given a subtle energy formula, it was like giving them a sudden jolt of life energy, or ""chi,"" strengthening the targetted meridians. In many cases, this new infusion of energy was sufficient to ""tip the scales"" in favor of the patient over their condition or disease. ""We found many effective vital energy patterns,"" reports Dr. Kronn. ""One example is the pattern we call 'Stress Relief' (E-1). Ten drops of trace minerals infused with E-1 in a glass of water, relieves anxiety or agitation in minutes, relaxes tension, helps you sleep well, even for people who have sleeping problems. Imprinted in cream (E-3) this energy pattern demonstrates really miraculous properties. As a rule, it takes pain away--in the case of soft tissue damage, in less than a minute. It prevents bruising, prevents burns from blistering, and it drastically accelerates the healing process.""

Many of the practitioners reported stronger and more defined measurements when testing for possible remedies using kinesiology or electro-dermal screening devices. And in many cases, the subtle energy formulas alone resolved cases outright. Redding, California, Naturopath Dr. Dan Davis reports, ""I have a room with over 400 items I can use to help my patients' wellbeingness. With the E-1, E-2 and E-3, literally half those products I don't need any more.""

Despite the predictable results of subtle energy (""chi"") use in medicine, the modality is slow to gain acceptance in the medical community, just as Acupuncture, Qigong, Reiki or even homeopathy are dismissed. The simple fact is that subtle energy does not interact directly with physical matter, and so, measuring devices cannot measure it. And for the vast majority of medical scientists, if the energy cannot be measured, it does not exist. ""Scientists already know that the particles of dark matter don't interact with the electromagnetic field,"" Dr. Kronn says. ""But our scientists have not yet made the next logical step towards understanding the universe's function, and that is that the Chi force field does not interact directly with the particles of our physical world. That is why scientific equipment cannot measure it. That is why the majority of scientists don't believe in the existence of Chi.""

To answer this conundrum of current modern science, Dr. Kronn cites several experiments to help confirm his subtle energy indirect-interaction hypothesis:

Changes in the infrared spectrum of water under the influence of receiving energy from a healing practitioner using a method called ""laying on hands."" (REF.) Strong changes in the pH of water and alcohol and in the solubility of dye under the influence of a healing practitioner's energy. (REF.) There is a significant change in the precipitation process of salts of different metals as the planets change their position in reference to each other. (REF.) In addition, to answer the famous ""placebo effect"" among humans--where the suggestion or expectation of an effect by the patient often causes the effect--Kentucky veterinarian, Dr. Gary Tran, has used subtle energy formulas on animals, from snakes to dogs, cats to birds, with great success very consistently. ""With animals there is no placebo effect. I use the E-1 a lot to sedate and tranquilize intractable animals so that we can work with them. It's especially good with cats. Cats are very difficult to work with, especially to medicate them. I use E-1. I give them about five drops, and the nasty ones I give 10 drops and they pretty much calm down and are easy to work with."" Additionally, Dr. Kronn has demonstrated dramatic results on plants and seed germination.

The future potential of subtle energy science and its therapeutic uses are quickly being realized. ""I believe that human potential is almost unlimited,"" declares Dr. Kronn. ""Among other things, my group is working on energy patterns for stimulating 'paranormal abilities' in people. It is possible that these abilities could become normal for a vast number of people. I hope that it will be possible to fully realize our human potential and make great improvements in the quality of our lives in this stressful age.""

GRAPHICS: http://www.subtleenergysolutions.com/newsletter-yurykronn.html

About the author: Boyd is the webmaster of www.subtleenergysolutions.com and the newsletter writer for that site. He enjoys a wide range of experience both in the ways of the internet, alternative health, environmental issues, and in freelance writing. An active, professional drummer, Boyd performs in the Portland area with several area blues and R&B bands. Boyd is also an avid, daily practicing Bikram Yoga student.

Thursday, July 17, 2008

Six Easy Steps For Choosing An Air Purifier

Author: Lukas Rathswohl

An air purifier can be very useful to improve the quality of your indoor air and make it more fit for breathing. Contrary to what people think, it is the

quality of your indoor air, and not so much outdoor air, which is responsible for various health problems such as asthma, allergies, hay fever, etc. All

these can be taken care of with a proper air purification system for your home. But how do you choose one? Well, here are the factors to consider when

choosing an air purifier.

Criteria For Choosing Air Purifiers

1) Size of the area: The size of the room that you wish to purify is an important consideration when buying an air purifier. If you choose a purifier

that is too small, it will not effectively clean the indoor air, thus rendering itself useless. And if you choose one that is too big, you could be

wasting a lot of money on your power bill. Thus, before buying an air purifier, you should measure the area of the room (or whole house as the case may

be) and then buy an air cleaning system that has the ability to purify the area.

2) Your purification needs: Why do you need an air purifier? What do you wish to remove from your indoor air? These are two questions that need to be

answered before choosing an purifier. Let's tackle them one by one.

* Most people want to buy an air purifier so that they can enhance their health through cleaner air. They wish to get rid of niggling allergies and

other health problems caused by bad indoor air. If that is the case, you need an air purifier for your whole house so that you can benefit from purer air

throughout your home. You should also ensure that the materials used in the air purification system as well as the filters are not ones that you are

allergic to and to which you can have a negative reaction. However, if you wish to purify selected areas in your home, it is best to go in for a portable

or a room air purifier, which can be used wherever you need it most.

* And now to the second question...what do you wish to eliminate from indoor air? Do you want to get rid of animal dander, or harmful germs and bacteria,

or disease causing particulates, or offensive odors and gases? If your primary need is to remove harmful particulates, then a HEPA air purifier is your

best bet as it effectively eliminates particles as small as 0.03 microns. To effectively remove germs and bacteria, you can choose an air purifier with a

UV system as these kill bacteria most effectively. However, in order to make your air as clean as possible, it is best to choose an air purifier that has

multiple filtration systems and not just one.

3) The CADR Rating: Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) is a rating that tells you how effective an air purifier is in eliminating dust mites, pollen

particles, and smoke from your indoor air. A higher CADR rating means the device is more effective and quicker at removing these harmful substances than

one with a lower CADR. Thus, you should select an air purifier with the best CADR rating.

4) Number of air changes per hour: This indicates the number of times a particular air purifier purifies the entire air within a given area in one hour.

Obviously, the higher the air changes per hour, the more efficient the purifier is, in not only purifying the air, but also maintaining its purity by

ridding the air of its impurities and pathogens rapidly and consistently. Thus, you need to choose one with as high air changing/hour rate as possible.

5) Maintenance and cleaning: Many people do not pay much attention to ease of cleaning the purifier when buying it and then get frustrated later on with

having to put in a lot of effort into its maintenance. While choosing an air purifier, you need to be aware of how regularly it needs to be serviced and

cleaned. How long can the filters be used before they need to be replaced? How expensive are the filters? Once you have the answers to these questions,

you can choose one which is easiest to clean and also not very expensive to maintain.

6) Noise Level: Some air purifiers make so much noise that they can literally wake up the dead! And since you want an purifier to enhance your health, it

is not going to happen if you choose a noisy one and lose sleep over it. Thus, check out the noise level of the air cleaner before making your purchase.

By following the above steps, you are sure to pick the ideal air purifier for your needs.

About the author: Lukas Rathswohl is the publisher of Air Purifiers For You, the one resource you need when looking for the perfect air purifier for your home. Go to Air Purifiers For You - Your Air Purification and Filtration Guide and breathe easier!

Wednesday, July 16, 2008

Cooling Down by Evaporating

Author: Thomas Yoon

Evaporator coils of air conditioning systems are sometimes called cooling coils. But cooling coils are also used in air-handling units. These contain chilled water. These are completely different from those used in direct expansion air cond units.

So cooling coils is not an accurate word to use in small air cond units. Evaporator coils should be used instead. Evaporator tubes must contain refrigerant liquid that can evaporate to become gas.

In an air conditioning system, when the liquid refrigerant absorbs heat, it turns to gas. The heat is thus transfered to the refrigerant. That's how the heat is moved from one location to another location.

The evaporator coils are located in the low-pressure system of a refrigeration circuit.

A word of caution!

If you run the evaporator blower without running the air cond system, sometimes you might get a burst tube in the evaporator.

Why? The heat from the blower air, evaporating the refrigerant in the evaporator tubes, and with no where to go (remember the air cond compressor is not running), will cause high pressures in the tubes.

So be careful that you do not run the blower while the air cond system is not running.

Appreciate your surroundings while enjoying better health and energy through walking. Quality Footwear Ensures Comfort and Performance for Every Occasion! Branded names like Ecco, New Balance, Birkenstock, Cole Haan, and Merrel are easily available. Quality Footwear

About the author: Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine at Subscribe More information at Marine and M & E

Tuesday, July 15, 2008

Graphology & Graphotherapy

Author: Nilesh Gore

|| Graphology & Graphotherapy ||

By Nilesh Gore :- ng411002@rediffmail.com http://www.brendynamics.com/gr Everybody wants to know more about peoples inner personality, Especially peoples with whom you are dealing and peoples whom you like, dislike, adore & love. Now haven't you ever thought of just knowing a person inside out and there should be a method for this also? Here is the science which can make you read a person like book. The accuracy level of reading is amazingly high. This science is known as 'Graphology' And the art of handwriting analysis (i.e Handwriting Analysis). Grapho-therapy is used to improve certain skills, attitudes, way of thinking, Health, mind , relationships and much more.

Graphology is the science of understanding the human mind through person's handwriting. When a person writes, the signal in the form of letters get decoded / printed on the paper by the fingers. Graphology aims at understanding & interpreting these signals through the writing. Using this we can know a persons mind so the thoughts, character and behavior. Graphology is used to understand following things >> ·1: Understand yourself much better. ·2: Child development. ·3: Selecting Life-Partner. ·4: Selecting Business Partner. ·5: Employee Selection / Recruitments ·6: Criminology. ·7: Knowing Your Friends, Colleagues, relatives, etc.

Now Lets know above things more closely 1: Understand yourself much better. :- Graphology helps and individual to know persons Strength & Weaknesses & see himself in totally new light. It can reveal various problems & its reasons the are associated with the past life. Graphology can help in understanding & removing the mental blocks to achieve greater personal & professional success.

2: Child development.:- Every child's mind is programmed in the childhood by the influence of the male and female images in the child's life usually the parents. Parents can understand their children in a better perspective & will come to know there strengths , weaknesses, likes, dislikes, Skills way of thinking, health & influence of their parents on him and can mould them to enhance their hidden skills for becoming better individuals of tomorrow.

3: Selecting Life-Partner.:- There is huge difference between a boyfriend and husband I repeat "There is huge difference between a boyfriend and husband " Before marriage boys promises the moon & stars but latter on the girl gets disappointment , the picture after marriage is not the rosy. Graphology (Handwriting analysis) can help in selecting the right partner as per the true picture of Boy / Girl.

4: Selecting Business Partner. :- What is your business partner is good starter and poor finisher ? What if he is a big deceiver? What if he can't face pressure ? selecting Business partner is equally important as life partner. Graphology can help you to select right business partner who can take right decisions & actions at right time.

5: Employee Selection / Recruitments :- Graphology can help in selecting right peoples for the right job. E.g. if a company wants to recruit excellent team players or fast analyst, creative artist, etc. Graphology can help in identifying these individuals by / via their handwritten samples & this can easily benefit the individual & organization.

6: Criminology.:- Graphology can assist police department in solving crimes related to the burglary thefts, suicides & even murders. Graphology can speed up investigation via writing & signature of a suspect & solve Cases.

7: Knowing Your Friends, Colleagues, relatives, etc. :- Know the every aspect and hidden aspect of personality so that you will understand them much better with reasons and will improve relationships.

These are the things we can do with graphology (Handwriting Analysis). If you want to do handwriting analysis then pls email me for further information on ng411002@rediffmail.com.

Nilesh Gore.

http://www.brendynamics.com/gr

About the author: Name : NIlesh B Gore Profession : Graphologist(Hndwriting Analyst) & SW. Eng. Email : ng411002@rediffmail.com Web : http://www.brendynamics.com/gr Country : India, Ms Copyrights : © Nilesh B Gore. Author has written for the leading newspaper (Sakal) in India - Ms and his articles had been published in number of websites.

Monday, July 14, 2008

Primes: Randomness and Prime Twin Proof

Author: Martin Winer

Primes:

Randomness and Prime Twin Proof

Martin C. Winer

martin_winer@hotmail.com

Referring sites: I'm greatly appreciative of sites that have found my work interesting and have linked to me: Most Notably, I appreciate:

Google Directory Google Prime Directory DMOZ Open Directory Project DMOZ Open Directory H. Peter Aleff @ recoveredscience.com Recovered Science

Introduction Overview The purpose of this work is to look into some long pondered questions. First, is the distribution of primes across the number line random? Next, what is random anyways? Finally the theories and axioms derived are used to solve the long discussed "Prime Twin Problem" to show possible applications of the understanding of what it means to be random.

Sieves and Patterns Consider all odd numbers starting at 3.

Mark a 1 on the number line where the number is a product of 3, (including 3x1), 0 otherwise. We get a pattern (sieve) such as:

1 0 0 1 0 0

3 5 7 9 11 13

1)The pattern is 100...

2)Note that the numbers corresponding to the zeros between 3 and 3^2=9 are also prime (5 and 7).

3)The length of the pattern is 3

Consider the pattern formed by 3 and 5:

1) the pattern is 110100100101100...

2) Note that the numbers that correspond to zeros between 5 and 5^2=25 are also prime (7,11,13,17,19,23)

3) The length of the pattern is 3x5=15

Definition of P(x) [The Xth Prime] In general

If we let P(x) be the xth prime starting from 3 such that

P(1)=3, P(2)=5, P(3)=7 and so on, we can consider the patterns on a larger scale.

Definition of Pat(n) Suppose we define a function Pat(n) which will produce the string of ones and zeros as defined above from P(1) to P(n).

I.e. Pat(1) = 100…

Pat(2) = 110100100101100… (That's the pattern or sieve of 3 and 5)

In such a case,

(1) The pattern will consist of 1's and zeros corresponding to the products and non-products of the n composing prime factors,

(2) The numbers corresponding to zeros between P(n) and P(n)^2 are guaranteed to be prime

[Why? because a number is either a prime or a product of primes. A zero means that it's not the product of any prime below it. The first unique contribution a prime factor gives to the number line occurs at P(n)^2 = P(n)xP(n) because below that at say P(n)xP(n-1) can be rewritten as P(n-1)xP(n) and thus is already accounted for in the number line. Thus a zero between P(n) and P(n)^2 is not a product of primes and must therefore be prime.]

(3) The length of the pattern will be:

P(n) x P(n-1) x P(n-2) x ... x P(1)

Unique Contributions of P(x) Description As we build iteratively build Pat(n)'s over time, each successive prime adds to our knowledge of which numbers are prime and which numbers are not. In the case of the prime number 3, we know that 3 is prime and that all (other) multiples of 3 are not prime. However, when we come to the prime number 5, 5 does not ADD to our knowledge that all multiples of 5 are not prime. For example 15 is a multiple of 5, but we already knew that this number was not prime because of the prime number 3. Therefore, the unique contribution to our knowledge as we build Pat(n)'s that a given prime (P(x)) provides us is given below:

Definition uniqueContribution(P(x)) For any prime, P(x), define

UniqueContribution(P(x)) = {P(x)*k; k is odd, k>=P(x), primeFactorization(P(x) contains no primes

inf) (1/x) = 0 Examine the model of:

let f(x) = 1/x

At no x, is f(x) = 0, however

closenesstozero(f(x+1))>closenesstozero(f(x))

and the

lim(x->inf)f(x) = 0

Likewise, for no x is Pat(x) a random pattern, however

The mr(Pat(n+1))>mr(Pat(n)), and then the

Important Identities (4a) lim(n->inf) mr(Pat(n)) = inf (i.e. grows infinitely complex)

(4b) lim(n->inf) uniqueContribution(P(n)) = random set

(4c) lim(n->inf) Pat(n) = random binary pattern (i.e. absolute random)

Definition of Random in English Pat(n) always produces patterns in the lowest reducible form (ask me for a proof if you like). Pat(n) has n smallest repeating units (we know this because the units are prime). Therefore as you create Pat(n) with greater and greater n, you produce lowest reducible patterns of greater and greater complexity (higher mr). Each individual P(n) as n increases, has a more and more complicated uniqueContribution, leading to more complexity in the resulting Pat(n)'s, hence more randomness. As you do this without bound, you create complexity based on previous complexity, resulting in infinite complexity = random.

So what can we do with this knowledge?

Solution to prime twin, triple, quadruplet problem Well it solves the prime twin, triplet, and quadruplet problems in a shot...

From 2 above, we know that the zero's between P(n) and P(n)^2 are prime. A prime twin will occur in this region whenever you see the pattern 00 (two adjacent prime candidates). Can one predictably say that there exists a certain Prime P(K) after which, there will never be a 00 in the pattern between P(k+q) and P(k+q)^2?

An examination of pattern combinatorics reveals that there is a 00 in the base case P(1) (100..). As we combine patterns, there will always be a 00 somewhere in the pattern Pat(n) (ask me for the proof if you like). The trick is, will it be between P(n) and P(n)^2.

Well the pattern subtended by P(n) and P(n)^2 is a subset of the pattern Pat(n) and grows without bound as n does. You can tell me less and less about it as n grows without bound. By (4) I can let n grow without bound until it is a truly random pattern at which time you can no longer tell me that you can predictably state that there won't be a 00 in the pattern between P(n) and P(n)^2. At the time that there is a 00 between P(n) and P(n)^2, a new prime twin will occur.

This is true of all prime triples, quadruplets etc that are allowable.

Why do they keep finding patterns in primes? This becomes evident knowing that we only have a finite list of primes in our knowledge. The patterns produced by a finite list of prime factors are never absolutely random, just relatively random, or 'sufficiently complex to avoid simple categorization'. Statistical tools, depending on their power, will find a pattern in those patterns not produced by an infinite number of prime factors (the number line).

Interesting Patterns in Non-Primes There are some interesting patterns in non-primes that emerge from this work.

Define:

LowMarker(n) = 3 + 2(P(1)xP(2)x…x(P(n)),

HighMarker(n) = 3 + 2(3x5x…xP(n)), and

Offset(n) = P(n) – 3

We can say conclusively, thanks to pattern combinatorics that numbers in the ranges:

LowRepeater(n) = [LowMarker(n),LowMarker(n)+Offset(n)] and

HighRepeater(n) = [HighMarker(n),HighMarker(n)+Offset(n)] are non-prime (product of primes)

Moreover they follow a similar pattern to the base pattern that spawned them.

Example Let's work an example:

Examine Pat(4) at the start of the pattern Examine the numbers

{3,5,7,9,11}

3 is a product of 3,

5 is a product of 5,

7 is a product of 7,

9 is a product of both 9 and 3,

11 is a product of 11

Recall P(4) = 11

Let's examine the numbers in the ranges, LowRepeater(4) and HighRepeater(4)

Examine LowRepeater(4) LowRepeater(4) = {2313,2315,2317,2319,2321}

2313 is a product of 3,

2315 is a product of 5,

2317 is a product of 7,

2319 is a product 3, and necessarily, not a product of 9 (this could only occur in HighRepeater)

2321 is a product of 11

Examine HighRepeater(4) HighRepeater(4) = {20793, 20795, 20797,20799, 20801}

20793 is a product of 3,

20795 is a product of 5,

20797 is a product of 7,

20799 is a product of both 9 and 3,

20801 is a product of 11

LowRepeater(n,k) and HighRepeater(n,k) LowRepeater and HighRepeater repeat over the number line

Adding a factor k to the previous functions we get:

LowMarker(n,k) = 3 + 2k(P(1)xP(2)x…x(P(n)),

HighMarker(n,k) = 3 + 2k(3x5x…xP(n)), and

Offset(n) = P(n) – 3

Then,

LowRepeater(n,k) = [LowMarker(n,k),LowMarker(n,k)+Offset(n)] and

HighRepeater(n,k) = [HighMarker(n,k),HighMarker(n,k)+Offset(n)] are non-prime (product of primes)

All, where k>=0 and k is an integer.

Interesting observation about the difference between LowMarker(n,k) and HighMarker(n,1) For a fixed n, and HighMarker's k=1, LowMarker's k = the product of the non-primes between P(1) and P(n).

The following table will clarify:

LowMarker(3,1) = HighMarker(3,1) LowMarker(4,9) = HighMarker(4,1) LowMarker(5,9) = HighMarker(5,1) LowMarker(6,9*15) = HighMarker(6,1) LowMarker(7,9*15) = HighMarker(7,1) LowMarker(8,9*15*21) = HighMarker(8,1)

Questions? Comments?

martin_winer@hotmail.com

© Martin C. Winer, 2004

Posted to the web on Mar 16, 2004 after years of being ignored :(

About the author: Martin Winer is a computer scientist by day, working on www.rankyouragent.com and an amateur mathematician by night. For a formatted version of this article, please view: http://members.rogers.com/mwiner/primes.htm

Sunday, July 13, 2008

Explosive Air

Author: Thomas Yoon

Have you considered your air compressor as a potential bomb?

If you have not, then you better!

Although air compressors are built to withstand high pressures, and will have all the necessary relief valves to take care of normal occurring overpressures, explosion involving fire propagation is another matter.

How can a fire occur in an air compressor?

In order to understand the phenomenon of explosion, we have to understand the nature of fire, because, after all, an explosion is a very rapid propagation of fire.

A fire will only start whenever three conditions are met - fuel, oxygen and heat.

An air compressor when operating will have a very rich supply of oxygen already in place - pressurized oxygen.

Where do we get the fuel?

If you use oil lubricated air compressors, the lubricating oil can become the source of fuel. It can also be in the form of carbon dust. Carbon is formed when oil is heated to high temperatures.

How is it possible to have high temperatures to ignite the combustible mixture?

There can be a lot of reasons - lack of lubrication due to oil deterioration, reduced lubricating quality of the oil, oil pump mechanism fault, oil filter choked, worn out parts leading to lessen oil pressures, etc. Whenever there is a hotspot sufficient to ignite the combustible mixture an explosion will occur. That is the extreme case.

Let's see what can happen that can lead to that extreme case of an explosion.

All the above reasons for lubrication failure or deterioration will gradually cause the machine to operate poorly, wear out the moving parts, cause oil spills and carry over of the oil in the air passages and increased heat built-up.

Now comes the cooling part. Is there a lack of cooling? If the high temperatures due to rubbing of parts from the above are not cooled down sufficiently, the heat will build up. The intercoolers play a very important role in removing the heat?

There are also many other reasons for the lack of cooling.

When the heat transfer surfaces have been coated by films of scale or carbon it will definitely affect the cooling process. The heating surfaces may have been reduced due to choked passages for the cooling medium in the heat exchanger. The cooling medium itself may be too hot probably due to a fault in another machine like the cooling tower where the heat can be taken away to the atmosphere.

The flow of coolant can sometimes be the culprit. When the cooling pump fails, or the driving belt snaps there will be a lack of coolant flow. One must also find out whether the valves for coolant have been accidentally closed or not.

Very often, the effects build upon one another in a vicious cycle - poor heat transfer leads to more heat that carbonizes more oil which coats the heat transfer surfaces more...which leads to worse heat transfer...

Therefore use oil lubricated air compressors with caution. If your air compressors have been running for a long time, chances are, your air compressor pipelines may have already accumulated a sizable amount of oil carried over together with the air flow during operation.

Does your air compressor work non-stop? Is the inter-cooler or the after-cooler efficient? Is your compressed air hot? These are the questions you have to ask yourself.

The oil film in the pipes turns to carbon with heat. The oxygen-rich and moist atmosphere inside the pipes can turn the oil into acids that can further deteriorate the oil to form other organic compounds, perhaps some highly flammable products.

It just needs a spark or a hot spot to ignite this.

Boom!!

Did I frighten you?

What you need is good preventive maintenance. An air compressor working at peak condition with good cooling, good lubricating pressures, and good lubricant and good parts should give trouble-free performance throughout its lifetime.

Sometimes the compressor may have reached the point of no return - coated coolers leading to high temperatures that lead to more coated cooling surfaces that lead to higher temperatures... In this case it is safer to discard the compressor altogether and obtain an entirely new compressor unit. It could be more economical - and safer!

If you do that, do ensure that preventive maintenance is done regularly to keep the unit at peak operating conditions all the time.

An explosion in an air compressor can have grave consequences. Don't take any chances. Perform regular preventive maintenance or buy a new unit before an explosion occurs.

Until next time…

Locate good air compressors for your garage and workshop here:

Eastwood

Northern Tools

About the author: Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine More information at Marine and M & E

Saturday, July 12, 2008

Why Condition Your Boiler Water?

Author: Thomas Yoon

A boiler is used for generating steam. It does this by heating water to its boiling point, after which steam will evaporate from it.

When you boil a kettle of water, you will shut off the fire or electric power when the water comes to a boil.

No so with a steam boiler. Generation of steam is a continuous process. Once a boiler is generating steam, it may take quite a long while before it is stopped. When steam is evaporated from the water, new water has to be added in to replace the water given out.

As more and more steam is evaporated, the water becomes more and more concentrated with salts and other impurities. If you use your kettle for a long while, you will see some chalky deposits inside it.

The fresh water supplied to replenish those lost through evaporation cannot be pure and free from salts. Even minute quantities of salt in the water will eventually become so concentrated as to form scales or deposits. The deposits are usually calcium or magnesium salts.

These scales are very damaging to the boiler because they interfere with the heat transfer and can lead to overheating and eventually, boiler rupture.

Soft water is water that contains very little calcium or magnesium salts. They are used to feed the boilers. However, they tend to be acidic in nature.

Acidic water tends to corrode. This is not good for the boiler. Corrosion can weaken the boiler.

By treating the boiler water with chemicals, we can control the acidity of the water as well as the softness of the water. This will solve the problem with scales and corrosion, but it is not the ultimate cure-all.

The boiler water will continue to become more and more concentrated as the steam evaporates. The next step to take is to remove the concentrated water and replenish it with fresh, soft water.

The process of removing the concentrated water is called blow-down.

Folks, close your ears!

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About the author: Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine More information at Marine and M & E

Friday, July 11, 2008

Expansion for Heat Absorption

Author: Thomas Yoon

In the refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant must undergo a change in state in order for the heat to be absorbed from the environment.

The refrigerant has the property of changing its state from liquid to vapor at normal room temperatures.

Have you ever felt your skin becoming cool whenever you put alcohol on it? Or even when a bit of petrol spilled onto your hands? It's because, the alcohol or petrol has evaporated when it comes in contact with your skin.

The result - heat is removed from your skin, and it feels cool!

In a closed-loop refrigeration circuit, the change of state from liquid to vapor is achieved mechanically by pressurizing the liquid at one end and forcing it through a small opening at another end.

Once the liquid comes out from the small opening, it expands into vapor. The effect is similar to the spray you get when you restrict the outlet of your garden hose. But water is not a refrigerant. It does not feel cold because it does not change to a vapor.

Bad example. But you get the idea? Pressurized restriction causes spray at the other end.

In many refrigeration circuits, the small opening is made in the form of a thermostatic expansion valve. Many other designs make use of small capillary tubes. In big chillers, orifice plates are common.

All of them achieve the same purpose - to expand the liquid to become vapor and to cause the evaporator tubes to become cold.

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Thursday, July 10, 2008

Evolution and Exorcisms

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

EVOLUTION: More surprising to me as I consider where my intellectual head-space has been on this issue, which is central to theological ideal; is the fact that I have become more of a creationist. Skeptics may say that God doesn't exist and I am inclined to agree he/she isn't within our purview to limit and say we know; HIM, or even what it is that really goes on, in the world about us. It would be difficult to say there is any one humanistic discipline or theology that fits with my perception. Teilhard de Chardin's 'templates' and 'quantum many worlds' join Lamarckian science, that requires uncertainty and values mystery and uncertainty principles with purpose. In the final analysis you can put me in whatever 'cubby-hole' you want and there'll be agreement and respect for the truth therein expressed. I see a lot of people sounding like they disagree and yet I see little difference except when they seek personal gain by it. Surely science has given a great deal of support to the concept of consciousness existing in the very smallest parts of energy, and in the ways it performs what was once considered miraculous, or magical. Here are the thoughts of two very scientifically oriented people from MIT in a book called 'Darwinism Evolving':

""They also made it harder for the scientific worldview to be received with equanimity by other sectors of culture. Indeed, since the reducing impulse undermines fairly huge tracts of experience, people like Wallace, who feel deeply about protecting phenomena they regard as existentially important, frequently conclude that they have no alternative except to embrace spiritualism, and sometimes even to attack the scientific worldview itself, if that is the only way to protect important spheres of experience that have been ejected from science's confining Eden. In response, scientists and philosophers who feel strongly about the liberating potential of a spare, materialistic worldview began to patrol the borderlands between the high-grade knowledge scientists have of natural systems and the low-grade opinions that in the view of science's most ardent defenders, dominate other spheres of culture and lead back toward the superstitious and authoritarian world of yesteryear. 'Demarcating' science from other, less cognitively worthwhile forms of understanding was already a major feature of Darwin's world. A line beyond which the Newtonian paradigm could not apply was drawn at the boundary between physics and biology. We have seen how hesitant Darwin was to cross that line and what happened when he did. Twentieth-century people are sometimes prone to congratulate themselves for being above these quaint Victorian battles. They may have less reason to do so, however, than they think, for the fact is that throughout our own century, the same sort of battles, with emotional overtones no less charged, have been waged at the contested line where biology meets psychology, and more generally where the natural sciences confront the human sciences. Dualisms between spirit and matter, and even between mind and body, may have been pushed to the margins of respectable intellectual discourse. But methodological dualisms between what is covered by laws and what is to be 'hermeneutically appropriated' are still very much at the center of our cultural, or rather 'two cultural', life. Cognitive psychologists and neurophysiologists are even now busy reducing mind-states to brain-states, while interpretive or humanistic psychologists are proclaiming how meaningless the world would be if mind is nothing but brain. Interpretive anthropologists are filled with horror at what would disappear from the world if the rich cultural practices that seem to give meaning to our lives were to be shown to be little more than extremely sophisticated calculations on the part of self-interested genes. Conflicts of this sort would have given Darwin stomachaches almost as bad as the ones he endured over earlier demarcation controversies.

The rhetorical pattern of these battles is still depressingly similar, in fact, to Huxley's confrontation with Wilberforce. Hermeneuts ridicule scientists like Hamilton, Dawkins, and Wilson when they suggest that nothing was ever known about social cooperation until biologists discovered kin selection. Reductionists in turn criticize hermeneuts, now transformed largely into 'culturists,' for bringing back ghosts and gods, just as their nineteenth-century predecessors were taxed with being 'vitalists' every time they said something about the complexity of development. Humanists identify scientists with an outdated materialist reductionism. Scientists insist that hermeneutical intentionality is little more than disguised religion.

Perhaps, a way out of this fruitless dialectic between the 'two cultures', can be found if each party could give up at least one of its cherished preconceptions {Or just give up the science that rejects certain facts in favour of convention or the 'Toilet Philosophy'.}. It would be a good thing, for example, if heirs of the Enlightenment would stop thinking that if cultural phenomena are not reduced to some sort of mechanism; religious authoritarianism will immediately flood into the breach. They should also stop assuming that nothing is really known about human beings until the spirit of scientific reductionism gets to work. Students of the human sciences have, after all, been learning things alongside scientists ever since modernity began. Among the things they have learned are that humans are individuated persons within the bonds of culture and cultural roles, and that as recipients and transmitters of cultural meanings, they are bound together with others in ways no less meaningful and valuable than the ways promoted by strongly dualistic religions. By the same token, it would be helpful if advocates of the interpretive disciplines would abandon a tacit assumption sometimes found among them that nature is so constituted that it can never accomodate the rich and meaningful cultural phenomena humanists are dedicated to protecting, and that therefore cultural phenomena 'ought never' to be allowed to slip comfortably into naturalism. Humanists seem to have internalized this belief from their reductionist enemies, whose commitment to materialism is generally inseparable from their resolve to show up large parts of culture, especially religion, as illusions. These opponents, we may safely say, take in each other's laundry."" (7)

Ego and protecting territory abound in the internecine warfare that academics who seldom DO anything, often fight over. Meanwhile the real DOERS explore the boundless and awesome 'waves of the marvellous'. (8) We should accept even the ridiculous possibilities that come to mind as having merit or avenues to understand, rather than constantly fighting to make black and white answers that support our ego and limit the people who put forward possibilities. The real rule should be something along the line of 'if it hurts no one, why not enjoy the possibility? There are ample evidences that every supposed correct point of view or paradigm is short-lived unless backed by force and some kind of authority that limits rather than supports god and his/her purpose. Then an open-mind obtains new insight and finds the templates of reality even in exploring what first appears to be utterly absurd. I admit I often have found the idea of creationism absurd, and yet as I said at the start of this entry I am now on the side of creationists through evolutionary forces with intentional creative inputs in the Intelligent Design or Interventionist mode. The next entry will seem absurd to most people and few will think it deserves inclusion in a segment purporting to have anything to do with science. I must include it in honest presentation despite the ridicule most people will attribute to it, and me.

EXORCISMS: - No, I don't believe it has anything to do with devils and those who project such evil images and intents. These people are the ones who claim only they can exorcize the very devils they manufacture, in the hallucinatory and delusional or vulnerable people they treat. 'The Devils of Loudon' by Aldous Huxley exposes these Catholic masters of the art of deception. That doesn't mean there are no spirits or dimensional entities with consciousness. To say such a thing would fly in the face of all the science we have presented. The soul would have no immortality as the Keltic Creed and Mandukya Upanishads that Eugene Wigner thinks explains quantum reality tells us is real. To deny such phenomena is the kind of thing reductionists in love with logic and certain of their omniscience will assure us they know. How can shamans create herbal concoctions that chemists can't create? How can we doubt the actual results of the 'dowsers' and Tesla's great achievements from visions or his 'non-force info packets' which allow such 'free energy' to be manufactured in something called a vacuum. NASA assures us the ingredients of life are 'everywhere' and that could even include a vacuum. What kind of avoidance of fact or 'easy answers' do you have to find in order to explain away reality and what you can observe with your own eyes? You would have to attribute the construction of 'henges' or the Nazca Lines to aliens or gods!

We don't reject these possibilities but they would only serve to enhance the probability of spirits that can possess our physical and complex body with all of its conscious atoms and coordinated centers of energy known as chakras. The science and medicine of the ancients assures us that these things exist and these scientists have a solid track record of performance. They DO the things others can't explain - then they explain how 'chhi' or Shakti is in every part of everything in the universe, and have suffered the guffaws of know-it-alls who are usually wrong. This energy with consciousness is open to direction and will avail the trapped or confused soul without awareness and unwilling to go on with life, an opportunity to hang on as ghosts or in the bodies of those they have shared life with. Sorry to disappoint the authors of 'Darwinism Evolving' but I knew this was fact even before 500 watts were extracted from a vacuum by machines built on the principles of Tesla. Those of us who have first hand knowledge of 'the waves of the marvellous' like Bucky Fuller and Einstein need no peer approval from those who deny god, the soul and ESP.

About the author: I am an activist author for ecumenicism and exposure of Synarchy. My work can be seen at World-Mysteries.com.