Monday, June 30, 2008

Conmathematical Resolution of Russell's Paradox

Author: Kedar Joshi (1979- )

Russell's Paradox -

'A paradox uncovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901 that forced a reformulation of set theory. One version of Russell's paradox, known as the barber paradox, considers a town with a male barber who, every day, shaves every man who doesn't shave himself, and no one else. Does the barber shave himself ? The scenario as described requires that the barber shave himself if and only if he does not ! Russell's paradox, in its original form considers the set of all sets that aren't members of themselves. Most sets, it would seem, aren't members of themselves - for example, the set of elephants is not an elephant - and so could be said to be ""run-of-the-mill"". However, some ""self-swallowing"" sets do contain themselves as members, such as the set of all sets, or the set of all things except Julius Caesar, and so on. Clearly, every set is either run-of-the-mill or self-swallowing, and no set can be both. But then, asked Russell, what about the set S of all sets that aren't members of themselves ? Somehow, S is neither a member of itself nor not a member of itself.'

( See David Darling : The Universal Book of Mathematics, 2004 )

Conmathematical Resolution -

The term 'Conmathematics' means conceptual mathematics ( invented by Dr. Kedar Joshi ( b. 1979 ), Cambridge, UK ). It is a meta - mathematical system that defines the structure of superultramodern mathematics. It essentially involves a heavy or profound conceptual approach which is in striking contrast with the traditional symbolic or set theoretic approach.

Now conmathematically Russell's paradox is quite easy to resolve. The conmathematical resolution could be stated in just one sentence : As there is no barber who shaves every man who doesn't shave himself, and no one else, likewise there is no set of all sets that aren't members of themselves.

This sentence is justified or explained below.

Suppose there is a barber who shaves every man who doesn't shave himself, and no one else. Now the barber himself is a man and the supposition requires that the barber shave himself if and only if he does not ! This contradiction straightaway implies that the supposition is false. That is, there is no barber who shaves every man who doesn't shave himself, and no one else.

The justification of the sentence 'there is no set of all sets that aren't members of themselves' goes on similar lines. Conmathematial foundations of mathematics, being very profound and deep, easily absorb shocks of such fuzzy paradoxes, where the set theoretical foundations need to be reformulated.

Kedar Joshi BSc MA MRI Cambridge, UK.

About the author:

Sunday, June 29, 2008

The NSTP (Non - Spatial Thinking Process) Theory as a Masterkey : Non - Spatial Universal Mechanics

Author: Kedar Joshi

The NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) theory, a published invention (2002) of Kedar Joshi ( b. 1979 ) (i.e.Myself), a Cambridge ( England ) based philosopher, is a position that, in computer terminology, regards Universe as a Non - Spatial Computer and Space as a Virtual Reality (UNSCSVR). This model of reality can resolve the mysteries surrounding quantum mechanics ( e.g. the wave - particle duality, the EPR ( Einstein - Podolsky - Rosen ) paradox, the Schrodinger's cat paradox ), Zeno's paradoxes, the biological phenomena of 'protein folding' and 'cell development and differentiation', relativity, action at a distance ( which is a rehabilitated mystery through Joshi's work ), etc. All these mysterious phenomena are, in fact, multiple aspects of a singular underlying structure, composed of four conceptual elements : 1.impossibility of spatial mechanism as a form of illusion 3.phenomenal mind as non - spatial 4.intelligent orderly execution of spatial events through non - spatial mechanism

The NSTP theory is the unique theoretical representation of that structure. The NSTP theory is a philosophical / scientific masterkey that unifies apparently diverse phenomena through its powerful non - spatial mechanical framework.

The NSTP theory is based on

A] Three axioms ( i.e. self - evident truths ) :

(One's objection that these propositions are not axiomatic is nothing but one's inability to perceive the truth. These propositions are clearly axiomatic to the author.)

1) Phenomenal mind ( or feelings or qualia ) is non - spatial. i.e. No kind of feeling, e.g. feeling of colour blue, can be represented by any spatial structure.

2) All kinds of experiences, even thoughts I know I am having, are feelings or qualias.

3) A phenomenally conscious self is a temporal stream of non - spatial phenomenal mental events. ( A Non - Spatial Thinking Process (NSTP), as every feeling is itself a thought or idea. )

B] And two hypotheses :

1) Space ( as a room or void out there : whether three or higher dimensional, bounded or unbounded ) is a virtual reality ( i.e. a form or projection of non - spatial mind, a kind of feeling ).

2) Individual or local NSTPs are orderly ( or thoughtfully ) executed by a gigantic, central, or global NSTP ( rather a group of NSTPs ), representing superhuman thoughts or ideas, in order to account for the order in the universe, e.g. the gravitational phenomenon. ( The central non - spatial superhuman thoughts are processed in zero time because of no spatial limitations; e.g. in space it takes time to transfer data from one spatial location to another. Although a conscious human is nothing but an NSTP it is, at least partially, conceptually, as opposed to physically, bound to the spatial biochemical brain, and thus the core NSTPs introduce time lag in processing of individual NSTPs, where appropriate. )

Further, the existence of the central NSTPs is assumed for two reasons :

i) In any machine where its peripherals are not intelligent enough to modulate ( or be able to account for ) their own behaviour there has to be some central intelligent part in the machine to bring out the peripheral happenings or phenomena.

ii) As the laws of physics ( or any other than those of pure mathematics or logic ) are not logically or conceptually necessary there has to be a way to change the ways individual NSTPs are generated ( or produced or executed ). And for that to be possible there has to be some central intelligence existing in the form of ( non - spatial ) mental events, which itself could be modulated to alter the modulation of individual NSTPs.

Thus, in computer terminology, in the NSTP model of reality the hardware of the universe is composed of non - spatial feelings, while its central software is made of superhuman thoughts, and the peripheral software is made of non - superhuman ones.

Now take for instance the EPR paradox or some equivalent mysterious experimental quantum phenomenon ( e.g. In 1997 experiments were conducted in which light particles ( photons ) originated under certain conditions and travelled in opposite directions to detectors located about seven miles apart. The amazing results indicated that the photons interacted or communicated with one another instantly or in no time. See Robert Nadeau, and Menas Kafatos, 1999. The non - local universe. 1st ed. Oxford : OUP. Back page. ). According to the NSTP theory this is no longer a mystery as the behaviour of photons is just a form of illusion, a virtual reality ( to non - spatial mind/s ) which is actually modulated ( or orderly executed ) by hidden / core non - spatial superhuman mental events. ( Again in analogy with spatial desktop computers such a photonic behaviour on the computer monitor screen has no slightest mystery surrounding it, as it is just a changing pattern of pixels which is modulated by some hidden software processes. )

The NSTP theory maintains both idealism ( as reality is exclusively mental ) and realism ( as the material entities we see out there do have a real existence in the core central non - spatial mind/s, which would exist independent of any other mind perceiving them ), and both mentalism ( as reality is exclusively mental ) and materialism ( as mind is real, it is physical / material ).

'Philosophy is written in this grand book - I mean the universe - which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it.' - Galileo Galilei

In reality the universe has no geometry. - Kedar Joshi The Superultramodern Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica : The Foundations of Superultramodern Physics, Mathematical Science, and Philosophy.

Most of the mysteries of the universe are out of the human belief that any mechanism has to be spatial. In reality the mechanism of the universe is non - spatial, whose appropriate understanding shall resolve those mysteries. - Kedar Joshi (K.J.)

All science is either mathematics ( characterised by utmost certainty, in case of pure mathematics, and precision ) or philosophy ( lacking what maths essentially has ). - K.J. ( Inventor of Conmathematics : Conceptual Mathematics)

To be is to be intelligent. To be is to be a machine. To be is to be non - spatial. To be real is to be physical / material. All machines understand. However, only non - spatial machines understand concepts. - K.J.

Superultramodern science begins where ultramodern science stops (the prefix 'super' means above/beyond). In physics, its basic principle is that reality is non - spatial. At its heart is the NSTP theory which unifies many apparently diverse phenomena and solves most of the most challenging problems in modern science. - K.J.

Dr Kedar Joshi, BSc, MA, DSc, DA, Cambridge, UK.

About the author: None

Saturday, June 28, 2008

Conmathematics (Conceptual Mathematics) : The Superultramodern Mathematics (SM)

Author: Kedar Joshi (1979- )

The term Conmathematics [ invented by Kedar Joshi (b.1979), Cambridge (England), i.e. myself ] means Conceptual Mathematics. It is a meta - mathematical system that defines the structure of Superultramodern Mathematical Science. (Conmathematics means that modern/ultramodern mathematics is not as conceptual as it should be.)

It has four main components.

1. Conmathematical Definition of Mathematics :

a) Conmathematical definition of pure mathematics - Pure mathematics is a system of 100% precise propositions believed to be 99.999...% certain ( the 0.00...1 % margin in the belief being for the sake of universal doubt : the principle that 'anything may be possible.'). Precise means every term of a proposition is absolutely clarified, and every non - axiomatic proposition is supported on the basis of axiomatic one/s leaving no doubt, except the universal doubt. It is very possible that some of the mathematical propositions are not clear ( or understandable ) to some persons. And, some of the propositions are less than 99.999...% certain to some persons. This possibility effectively gives rise to the possibility of multiple mathematical systems according to the nature of the individuals concerned, though truth is believed to be existing independent of individual minds. The principle of universal doubt makes it necessary to review the mathematical systems continuously so that in future they may not be seen to be mathematical at all.

b) Conmathematical definition of applied mathematics - Applied mathematics is a system of propositions constructed by applying some or all of the pure mathematical propositions to deal with ( i.e. to explain and / or predict ) phenomena that are believed to be less certain than the phenomena expressed by pure mathematical propositions. For example, I cannot believe the law of gravity ( the law that every matter, in principle, attracts every matter out of some force or curvature of space - time ) to be 99.999...% certain, as I can imagine a universe where the law of gravity is invalid ( i.e. where every matter distracts every matter out of some force or absence of space - time curvature ).

2. Philosophy as Mathematics :

According to the conmathematical definition of mathematics, the core ideas in ultramodern science / philosophy, though appearing to be philosophical, are, in fact, mathematical. For example, the axiomatic component of the NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) theory is pure mathematical, while its hypothetical component is applied mathematical.

3. Conceptual Reconstruction of Pure Mathematics :

It entails some flaws in modern pure mathematics and the ultramodern reconstruction of pure mathematics, free of those flaws. Some of the flaws are mentioned below.

a) Flaw in the concept of hyperspace - The Joshian conjecture of 3 dimensional space [ that space, whether appearance or reality, can have 3 and only 3 dimensions ( The conjecture is based on two grounds : i. The NSTP theory implies falsehood of the ontology of general relativity. ii. Four or higher dimensional space cannot justifiably be imagined. ) ] implies that the concept of hyperspace is invalid. And the flaw in the concept of hyperspace has following implications :

i. The Riemann hypothesis ( which asserts that all interesting / non - trivial solutions of the zeta function equation lie on a straight line Re (z) = 1 / 2 ) shall never be proved as it is based on the concept of four - dimensional space. ( Then still how the Riemann hypothesis turns out to be correct for the first 1,500,000,000 solutions is in the same category as the mathematical / experimental success of the general relativity, despite of the background physics of the NSTP theory. )

ii. The Poincare conjecture [ if 3 dimensional sphere ( the set of points in 4 dimensional space at unit distance from the origin ) is simply connected ] shall neither be proved nor be disproved as it is based on the concept of four - dimensional space as well.

iii. Andrew Wiles' proof ( entitled : Modular elliptic curves and Fermat's last theorem ) of Fermat's last theorem ( the theorem that there are no whole number solutions to the equation x^n + y^n = z^n for n greater than 2 ) is flawed as it is also based on the concept of four - dimensional space.

b) Flaw in the concept of irrational number - An irrational number ( e.g. Ö 2 ) is not really a number at all as no number can be a square root of 2. 'Ö 2', for example, is a mere symbolic way of saying square root of 2 without actually presenting it, as any way it does not exist.

4. Conmathematical Foundations of Pure Mathematics -

These are in contrast with the symbolic or, in particular, set theoretic foundations of pure mathematics ( as laid out in Bertrand Russell's Principia Mathematica ). The conmathematical foundations are conceptual ( though symbolism itself is a concept ) which attempt to define number, for example, as a symbolic representation of quantity and justify the equality a + b = b + a on the reason that in scalar addition order is irrelevant ( and, if possible, to decompose this concept or a group of concepts further ).

Kedar Joshi BSc MA MRI Cambridge, UK.

About the author:

Friday, June 27, 2008

Aliens in Archaeology

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

As you read this book you will have to suspend the disbelief you feel when confronted with my assertions that for at least 5000 years man has been in close contact all over the world. If you have read my other books you will know I have made the case better than any and that there are lots of good scholars who agree with me.

Puma Puncu and Lake Titicaca may provide the proof as a recent research team finally checks out the spires of ancient buildings that fishermen have tied their boats to for millennia. Here high in the Andes we know there were astronomers who also were in Central America where the Earth Energy Grid allowed something fantastic to dovetail with other places including Giza. The Cosmic energy and earth energy in concert with their soulful energy was able to build psycho-spiritual attunements that have only recently been sublimated by most nations or our leaders. Yet these leaders are members of cults or Christian Mystery Schools like the Rosicrucians who use this occult knowledge against us.

I think there is a great chance that it was well understood 15,000 years ago by Andean astronomers who were Kelts and later became Chachapoyas and leaders of the Incas in a time when much of the real knowledge had diminished. High above the clouds they could see the Milky Way formation that looks like a serpent without the glass lenses that they got from the slow moving lava flows and that have been found at La Venta in Mexico and in modern day Ecuador by archaeologists. Quetzalcoatl, Kukulcan, Viracocha, Xolotl and others are the 'travelers' who I think I have proven are Druids through many sources in other books. Here is a little of the Theosophist viewpoint on the serpent or Dragon wisdom that led Central America and included people boarding their kid's heads to look like serpents.

"We read in The Secret Doctrine that fohat, divine messenger, intelligent cosmic electricity, who at the Divine Word proceeds forth to create worlds and the beings thereon, moves in a serpentine course, generates spirals; and this spiral plan of evolution is imitated throughout nature, from the nebulae to the spiral growth of plants. The serpent means divine wisdom, creative intelligence; and Masters of Wisdom are called serpents -- which gives a new meaning to the injunction ""Be ye wise as Serpents."" Hermes or Mercury carries the caduceus, a wand with two serpents entwined on a staff; the Chinese made the serpent the emblem of their emperors; the Druids called themselves snakes; serpent-emblems called Dracontia once covered the globe and are still found; Quetzalcohuatl was the snake-deity of the ancient Mexicans; dragons are found throughout ancient symbology with the same sense. But we also hear of evil serpents. The Gnostics spoke of an Agathodaimon and a Kakodaimon, or a good and an evil divinity, represented as serpents; Hercules slays Python; Apollo at birth overcomes a serpent, but does it by means of another serpent -- the higher wisdom in man overcoming the lower. The two nodes of the moon, Rahu and Ketu, are called the Dragon's head and tail. So the serpent can represent the duality of human nature -- which is but a copy of the duality in cosmos. A dual geometry may be based on the right and left helical curves. There is the serpent of spirit and the serpent of matter, the heavenly wisdom from above and the earthly wisdom from below, of which Paul speaks so often." (1)

There are many books that Adrian Gilbert, Robert Bauval, Robert Schoch and others have done which show the correspondences between Egyptian and Mayan prophecy. I regard a lot of this as mere rationalization of Armageddon type fear-mongering and 'miss'-story. Inevitably they draw alien influences into the game and often they see it going from Egypt to the Sarmoung Brotherhood rather than having an earth-based prior culture in places such as archaeology does now prove. I have documented these things in books starting with Diverse Druids. The chances of my work getting a real publisher are minimal as a result. Archaeologists do not integrate all the discoveries throughout the world and the media in the US refuses to report on finds such as Yonaguni or tell us why Kennewick Man's site was destroyed. I know 60 Minutes asked that pointed question but I have yet to find an answer as to who did this or allowed it to happen the day before Congressional Bills were set to take effect.

The correspondences of the Mayan calendar with Egypt are real in some ways and I do not throw away the information provided. I do however look for the science to explain these things rather than take the easy answer which fits a paradigm that has fed excrement to us about Elohim or other alien influences for the last five thousand years.

About the author: guest expert Regular columnist for The ES Press Magazine Author of Diverse Druids

Thursday, June 26, 2008

Limestone Info and Facts

Author: Joey Lewitin


Limestone is one of the most versatile stones available. In its pure form it is hard enough to be used in almost any application, however it is relatively soft compared to other building stones such as marble.

Limestone Variations

Forms of limestone include chalk (a much softer version), and marl (a type of fertilizer). Travertine is also a limestone, though harder. Travertine is often found in stalactite and stalagmites that have formed in caves.


Limestone is chiefly composed of calcium carbonate. It is a sedimentary rock, which means that it is formed by the collection of other minerals coming together to bond at a structural level. This most commonly occurs when lime builds up in oceans, then washes ashore and dries out.


It is white in its purest form; however impurities that become stuck in the structure during formation cause colorful streaks and shades to appear in its surface. There are literally an unlimited number of colors limestone can come in due to the variety of impurities and the nature of their relationship to the forming stone. Iron will generally cause the colors in limestone to shift to red, or yellow, while carbon will shift the colors more towards grey or black. The erratic nature of the way the impurities join with the limestone, means that each piece of limestone is unique. Despite these wide variations Limestone can be easily categorized into several subgroups.

Caring For

Caring for limestone is easy. It is generally best in a low traffic indoor setting. Certain stone treatments can be used to seal the stone, and if you are interested in these you should ask a local stone professional for their advice on the right sealer to use on your stone.


Limestone is used in counters, floors, paving, surface re-facing, and recently it has been incorporated into stone home furnishing items such as coasters, tables, and chess boards. Limestone is used to produce lime, to help extract iron, and in many concretes. It is a stone with a wide number of uses.

About the author: Joey Lewitin is an author, a designer, and an artist. Check his website to see some of his creations such as a variety of Decorative wall clocks and stone decor gifts and furnishings

Tuesday, June 24, 2008

Calcium - Why We Need It And Where We Get It

Author: Michael Russell

Calcium. We see ads for it on TV everyday. Get more calcium. Now you can get all the calcium you need for a whole day in one little pill. Heck, we even have calcium in our antacids now. So just what is it with the calcium craze? Is calcium REALLY that important? In this article we're going to go over some of the things you can naturally and not so naturally find calcium in and why we need it.

Most people probably know that calcium is important for maintaining healthy teeth and bones. But the importance of calcium doesn't stop there. It is also important for the proper functioning of muscles and nerves and overall body health. It even helps your blood clot faster should you get cut.

Most people think they get enough calcium every day. The truth is, most people don't and when calcium levels drop too low, then calcium is taken from the bones which is what causes them to become brittle. The average person loses between 400 and 500 mg of calcium per day.

So just how much calcium does an average person need and how much do we normally get?

What most people don't know is that a good portion of the calcium we get daily comes from sunlight. So taking a nice long walk on a sunny day will give you a good dose of calcium right off the bat. This is another reason why people who exercise regularly by walking are in better shape than those of us who don't.

Aside from the calcium we get from sunlight, studies show that a person should eat about 700 mg of calcium daily. However this is also dependent on our age. Children who are still growing need more calcium than adults. However, older adults need more calcium than younger adults because as we age the bones tend to become more brittle. Post menopausal women are especially at risk of calcium deficiency and should increase their calcium intake to about 1200 mg per day.

Unfortunately, aside from milk based products like milk and cheese, not a lot of food contains significant amounts of calcium. This is why it becomes difficult sometimes to get all the calcium we need just from the food we eat and we need to get additional calcium in supplements.

The most common of these supplements are vitamins. A typical multi vitamin will contain between 150 and 200 mg of calcium per pill. This is not nearly enough to give us all the calcium we need but it is hoped that between this pill, the foods we eat and the sunlight we get. it will be enough. If not, there are other sources of calcium.

For people who suffer from excess acid they can get extra calcium by taking a Tums. The regular Tums has 200 mg of calcium per tablet and the extra strength has 300 mg per tablet. Combining a Tums with a multi vitamin and your regular dairy intake should give you more than enough calcium in your diet unless you are in need of extra calcium. In that case there are calcium supplement pills that contain as much as 500 mg of calcium per pill.

Certainly with proper diet and all the available calcium supplements around there is really no need for a normal healthy person to be calcium deficient.

It may just be time for a snack of milk and cookies.

About the author: Michael Russell

Your Independent guide to Calcium

Monday, June 23, 2008

The NSTP Theoretical Resolution of Zeno's Paradoxes

Author: Kedar Joshi

Zeno of Elea's (b.490 BC) arguments against motion precipitated a crisis in Greek thought. All of these, concerning motion, have had a profound influence on the development of mathematics. They are described in Aristotle's great work 'Physics' and are presented as four arguments in the form of paradoxes, stated below :

1. The Racecourse or Dichotomy Paradox -

There is no motion because that which is moved must arrive at the middle of its course before it arrives at the end. In order to traverse a line segment it's necessary to reach the halfway point, but this requires first reaching the quarter - way point, which first requires reaching the eighth - way point, and so on without end. Hence motion can never begin.

This problem isn't alleviated by the well - known infinite sum ½ + ¼ + 1/8 ... = 1 because Zeno is effectively insisting that the sum be tackled in the reverse direction. What is the first term in such a series ?

( See David Darling : The Universal Book of Mathematics, 2004. )

2. Achilles and the Tortoise -

This is perhaps the most famous of the Zeno's paradoxes.

The slower when running will never be overtaken by the quicker; for that which is persuing must first reach the point from which that which is fleeing started, so that the slower must necessarily always be some distance ahead. Thus, Achilles, however fast he runs, will never catch the plodding Tortoise who started first. And yet, of course, in the real world, faster things do overtake slower ones.

3. The Arrow -

An arrow cannot move at a place at which it is not. But neither can it move at a place at which it is. But a flying arrow is always at the place at which it is. That is, at any instant it is at rest. But if at no instant is it moving, then it is always at rest.

4. The Moving Blocks or Stadium -

Suppose three equal blocks, A , B, C, of width 1, with A and C moving past B at the same speed in opposite directions. Then A takes one time, t, to traverse the width of B, but half the time, t/2, to traverse the width of C. But these are the same length, 1. So A takes both t and t/2 to traverse the distance 1.

( See Simon Blackburn : Dictionary of Philosophy, 1996 )

The German set theorist Adolf Frankel ( 1891 - 1965 ) is one of many modern mathematicians ( Bertrand Russell is another ) who have pointed out that 2,000 years of attempted explanations have not cleared away the mysteries of Zeno's Paradoxes : ""Although they have often been dismissed as logical nonsense, many attempts have also been made to dispose of them by means of mathematical theorems, such as the theory of convergent series or the theory of sets. In the end, however, the difficulties inherent in his arguments have always come back with a vengeance, for the human mind is so constructed that it can look at a continuum in two ways that are not quite reconcilable.""

( See David Darling : The Universal Book of Mathematics, 2004 )

The NSTP Theoretical Resolution of the First Two Paradoxes

Zeno's paradoxes, except the last two, are not a matter of language or symbolic theories (e.g. set theory) or equations. They are deep rooted in profound concepts, whose appropriate analysis and synthesis shall resolve the paradoxes.

The first two of Zeno's paradoxes are out of the misbelief that space exists in the ontological sense, i.e. as a reality, out there. In fact, space is a virtual reality, a form/kind of illusion. Consequently (spatial) motion is also a form of illusion ( to non - spatial observer/s ). Thus reality is not constrained by spatial infinities as whatever that is seen as happening in space is a mere illusion, with no resemblance to reality. And illusion could be of any logically possible kind. In other words, the thoughts modulating / creating / responsible for the spatial illusion do not have to bother whether the mover has to first reach half of the distance and so on, or the faster has to first reach the point where the slower started or has infinitely many gaps to traverse, etc. The only thing is that they, the thoughts, produce some dynamic spatial pattern ( actually / physically represented in the form of appropriate non - spatial states of consciousness ), as if a mover moving or the faster overtaking the slower. That's it.

[ In analogy with today's desktop computers a software programmer / graphic designer do not at all have to worry with Zeno's first two arguments / paradoxes. All s/he has to do is to write a program in order to create / generate an appropriate dynamic / changing pattern on the computer monitor screen. The same is true with the whole universe, whose non - spatial mechanism is stated in the NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) theory. ]

Resolution of the Third Paradox

The first proposition / assumption in the third paradox is false.

Resolution of the Fourth Paradox

In the fourth argument / paradox there is no consideration of speeds ( or the concept of speed ). As A and C are travelling in the opposite directions their speeds add up. And as time taken = distance covered / speed, double speed makes the mover cover the distance in half time.

And even if this solution has any flaw/s then ultimately there is the NSTP theory, with its idea of spatial illusion, to resolve the paradox.

About the author: None

Sunday, June 22, 2008

Time travel: sci-fi?

Author: Khalil A. Cassimally

When you look at the clear night sky, you see stars-those tiny diamonds suspended in the vast pitch-black emptiness. But stars shine because…? Our own sun, which is a star, emits light. Stars are like giant bulbs but are much more powerful.

Light travels at a speed of 3.0*108m/s in vacuum and space is mostly vacuum. In other words light can cover a mighty distance of 300 000 000m in only 1 second!

The thing is that 300 000 000m is a just one of those small amounts in space. Other stars are billions of kilometres-let alone metres-away. Astronomers in fact use light year as the unit for distance. One light year is the distance travelled by light (in vacuum) during one year. Therefore one light year equals (300 000 000*3600*24*365)m.

A single light year is definitely huge: 9.46 trillion kilometres-no need to put this in digit form-in fact. But where exactly do I want to converge? A star that you see in the night sky is not one but many light years away. This means that it is very far away. But most importantly, it means that light from this particular star takes many years-and not mere seconds-to reach your eyes! So what?

When you watch a star, you are actually only seeing the light it emitted years ago. At present, the star may be somewhere else in the night sky. (Stars do move in space). It might have deflected a little to the east or north or north-northeast. The star is still emitting light though. This light will however be seen in the following decades or even centuries; or simply next year.

When you watch stars at night, you are actually looking in the past. So who or what is time travelling? The star? You? Or light? The further something is from you, the further in the past you are penetrating into.

Maybe then, someday, the newest technologies will be able to observe these seconds after the Big Bang-if it ever occurred in the first place.

About the author: Khalil A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. He is currently Senior Columnist at and Columnist for h2g2 The Post where he writes 'Not Scientific Science' column.

Saturday, June 21, 2008

The Non - Spatial Natural Selection (NSNS) or The NSTP Theory of Evolution

Author: Kedar Joshi (1979- )

Some Background -

'To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree. Yet reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a perfect and complex eye to one very imperfect and simple, each grade being useful to its possessor, can be shown to exist; if further, the eye does vary ever so slightly, and the variations be inherited, which is certainly the case; and if any variation or modification in the organ be ever useful to an animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, can hardly be considered real.' - Charles Darwin, On Natural Selection

'Natural selection is the blind watchmaker, blind because it does not see ahead, does not plan consequences, has no purpose in view.' - Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker

The Non - Spatial Natural Selection (NSNS) or The NSTP Theory of Evolution

Darwinian theory of natural selection is not a complete theory of evolution, rather far from it. There is, in addition, yet a dramatically different kind of natural selection where the non - spatial universal intelligence ( or software ) modulates the ( conceptually ) spatial species ( or structures ) and consequently selects them in order to execute the plan of design. The Darwinian natural selection is Spatial Natural Selection ( SNS ), while the later one, being a specific case or application of the NSTP theory, is Non - Spatial ( Computational ) Natural Selection ( NSNS ), which should now be called as Joshian Natural Selection. NSNS, through its idea of non - spatial computational intelligence creating orderly spatial illusion, answers the hardest biological problems such as the problem of cell development and differentiation ( ) or the problem of newly minted protein settling into the correct shape ( ), which the Darwinian theory of evolution, or, in general, the SNS completely fails to answer. And it is very clear that the Joshian ( Non - Spatial ) Theory of Evolution is at the heart of evolution, not the Darwinian ( spatial ) theory of evolution. In effect, the Darwinian theory of evolution is severely incomplete and hardly, if at all, answers how life develops.

The watchmaker is not blind but extremely intelligent, powerful, and a great foreseer. - Joshi

What is life ? - Erwin Schrodinger

From the NSTP theoretical perspective life is of two kinds :

1) Pseudo life - As space is a form of illusion to non-spatial mind, all spatial entities have pseudo life.

2) Real life - As feelings/consciousness is real/physical/material, all conscious entities, like I, have real life.

Kedar Joshi BSc MA MRI Cambridge, UK.

About the author: None

Friday, June 20, 2008

The Superultramodern Scientific Explanation of the Fundamental Forces

Author: Kedar Joshi (1979- )

Part I

The particle theorists' explanation of the fundamental forces -

1) Explanation of the force of repulsion -

'In quantum mechanics, the forces or interactions between matter particles are all supposed to be carried by particles of integer spin - 0, 1, or 2. What happens is that a matter particle, such as an electron or a quark, emits a force - carrying particle. The recoil from this emission changes the velocity of the matter particle. The force - carrying particle then collides with another matter particle and is absorbed. This collision changes the velocity of the second particle, just as if there had been a force between the two matter particles.' ( See Hawking 1996, p. 90 )

2) Explanation of the force of attraction -

It is the same as the description of the force of repulsion. For example, 'The gravitational force of the sun on the earth is pictured in particle theories as being caused by the emission of a graviton by a particle in the sun and its absorption by a particle in the earth.' ( See Hawking 1996, p. 217 )

a) Deficiency -

With reference to the particle theorists' description of the force of repulsion it is quite simple to see that its explanation of the force of attraction is totally inadequate. By the emission and absorption of graviton the two matter particles would rather go away ( or be repulsed ) from each other.

b) Principal deficiency -

The particle theorists' model does not at all explain how the matter particle, that emits a force - carrying particle, realises the presence of the other matter particle. In other words, the model does not explain how the emitter of the force - carrying particle knows when to emit a particle.

Part II

The Superultramodern Explanation -

According to the NSTP (Non - Spatial Thinking Process) theory any basic force of attraction or repulsion is just a form of spatial illusion to non - spatial observer/s, where the illusion is modulated or orderly governed by some superhuman thoughts also existing in the form of non-spatial feelings. Any experimental evidence in support of the particle theorists' explanation is also a form of orderly spatial illusion.

Kedar Joshi BSc MA MRI Cambridge, UK.

About the author:

Thursday, June 19, 2008

Joshian Conjectures ( i.e. Superultramodern Scientific Conjectures )

Author: Kedar Joshi (1979- )

Following are some conjectures of Kedar Joshi ( i.e. myself ) that are more or less essential to the superultramodern science.

1. Joshian Conjecture of Three Dimensional Space - Space has three and only three ( spatial ) dimensions.

Basis : i. There is no evidence to believe in hyperspace : space with more than three ( spatial ) dimensions. Also the NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) theory falsifies general relativity on its ontological side. This means that the experimental evidence in support of general relativity is in fact out of some superhuman thoughts existing in the form of ( non - spatial ) feelings. Three dimensional space is not curved in any fourth spatial dimension. ii. I cannot imagine / see / experience space with more than three ( spatial ) dimensions. Also my intuition supports my conjecture. ( i.e. conjecture 1 )

2. Joshian Conjecture of No Spatial Mechanism - There is no spatial mechanism responsible for most of the mysterious phenomena in nature / universe. In some cases, e.g. action at a distance in quantum mechanics, this conjecture is extremely strong, while in some other cases, e.g. the phenomenon of gamma ray bursts, it is not so strong. The NSTP theory states that the real / underlying / hidden mechanism of the universe is non - spatial, and thus demystifies the phenomena.

3. Joshian Conjecture of Flawed Reason - Reason itself is flawed. That is, no thought/s or reasoning ( not mere human but rather of any possible kind ) can ( rightly / accurately ) describe at least some of the aspects of the universe. This conjecture is actually the most likely possibility. For more information please consult the article 'Joshian Meditations ( i.e. Superultramodern Meditations )'. This conjecture puts a possible ( rather probable ) limit to science.

One of the basic principles of the superultramodern science, viz. 'anything may be possible, for that which is believed to be 100 % certain at present may be because of the limited intellectual capacities of the believer' implies that every theorem and axiom is, in fact, a conjecture. ( Rather should be seen / taken as a conjecture. )

Joshi's Law of Gravity - Gravity is neither a force nor a consequence of any space - time curvature. It is simply an orderly spatial illusion, modulated by some very intelligent / superhuman thoughts, to non - spatial observer / s.

If superultramodern scientific ideas are hypothetical then Newton's ideas ( e.g. force ) were also hypothetical and even ( precisely ) false. However, they were and still are regarded as scientific. Science is about knowing, through speculation. It's a systematic or reasonable guesswork where there is always, it seems, a room for new guesses modifying or overthrowing previous ones.

Kedar Joshi BSc MA MRI Cambridge, UK.

If you are out to describe the truth, leave elegance to the tailor. - Albert Einstein

About the author:

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

The Superultramodern Principia : The Foundations of Superultramodern Science (SS)

Author: Kedar Joshi

The Superultramodern Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (in short, The Superultramodern Principia) mainly combines The NSTP (Non - Spatial Thinking Process) Theory and Conmathematics (Conceptual Mathematics). It also entails some other ideas of Dr Kedar Joshi like 'If reason itself is flawed', Great flaws in modern/ultramodern physics, The nature of science, mathematics, and philosophy, Superultramodern universal communism, etc. Its chief purpose is to lay down the foundations of Superultramodern science (physics, mathematical science, and philosophy).

So far philosophers/scientists have argued too much regarding the nature of mind, self, space, time, and, in general, reality. Now they should understand that the truth on these matters might be known not through too much thinking and debate, but through more or less self-evident propositions, straightforward reasoning, and possibilities. Either, if they are smart enough, they would appreciate it or dismiss it and thus fail to see the light forever.

- Dr Kedar Joshi, BSc MA DSc DA, PBSSI Cambridge, UK.

About the author: The Founder and President of 'Superultramodern Scientific Institution' (SSI).

Tuesday, June 17, 2008

Only knowledge from above...

Author: Terry Dashner

"Only knowledge from above can Move us forward."

On Christopher Columbus' fourth voyage to the New World in 1503, he and his crew became stranded on the island of Jamaica. Columbus' food supply was almost gone, and his ship was too badly damaged to repair [worms had eaten through the wooden hull].

At first, the Jamaicans gave Columbus and his crew food and supplies. When Columbus and his crew were not rescued after many months, the Jamaicans finally refused to give them any additional food.

Columbus did not want his crew to starve, so he came up with a plan. Columbus could tell from his navigational tables that there would be a total lunar eclipse on February 29, 1504. He decided to schedule a meeting with the Jamaicans for that night.

At the meeting, Columbus told the Jamaicans that God was not happy about how they were treating him and his crew, so God was going to take away the Moon as a sign of his unhappiness! After Columbus told this to them, the lunar eclipse began. This terrified the Jamaicans! They pleaded with Columbus to bring back the Moon, and they said he could have all the food he wanted.

Columbus told them that he would have to go talk to God. Instead, he snuck away to watch an hourglass that he had timed so he would know exactly when the eclipse would end. Right before the lunar eclipse ended, Columbus returned and told the Jamaicans that God would give back the Moon. And, of course, the Moon reappeared.

The Jamaicans gave food and supplies to Columbus and his crew until they were rescued and returned to Europe. I guess one could say that knowledge from above or about the "above" is a good thing to have.

I find it very interesting that the Bible declares from the beginning that God created the lights in the sky. The greater light refers, of course, to the sun. The lesser, on the other hand, refers to the moon. What I want to say is this: It wasn't until man became knowledgeable of the cosmos that he began to make strides forward in religion, philosophy, science, literature, and discovery. So pardon the pun, but it's true. Knowledge from above can move us forward. Let me explain, please.

Before Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) defied the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church by saying that the earth moves around the sun (the church believed that the earth was the center of the universe and the sun and stars revolved around it), he was risking his life.

But Copernicus was not afraid to speak out about his knowledge of the heavens, and the world of modern science owes him a debt of gratitude (Copernicus was a scientist and devout Christian). At the time, government and religious officials did not encourage original thought for fear that new ideas would create unrest. So, a free thinker like Copernicus had to come along with his knowledge of the stars in order to move us forward in our thinking.

Before Columbus could sail to a New World, there had to be a greater knowledge of the seas and navigation. When the ancient Phoenicians took to the seas, they hugged the coastline to keep from getting lost at sea. When the Vikings took to the seas a few centuries before Columbus, they were using primitive (caged ravens to determine proximity to shore), but albeit greater knowledge and technology than the Phoenicians.

There were two basic inventions during the Renaissance that made Columbus' journey to the New World possible—the magnetic compass and the astrolabe (forerunner to the modern sextant). Only by knowledge of the sun, moon, and stars, with a few simple instruments that measured distance between sun, moon, and stars did Columbus succeed in navigating the high seas. Here again, knowledge from above was necessary to move man forward.

Remember the importance of the stars to the wise men from the east when Jesus was born? Remember what Jesus said in Matthew 24 about His second return? What did He say would foretell His appearing? He told us the sun would turn dark and the stars would fall from the heavens. That's interesting. Again, knowledge of the stars above will point to the soon coming King of Kings.

Now what am I saying? I'm saying that God put the stars in the sky for a purpose. Yes, they are beautiful, but there is more to them than just their beauty. The Bible declares that all His creation declares His glory. Even the stars in the sky speak of their Creator. Why can't man do this? Why does man remain the only rebel in God's creation who refuses to worship and adore his Creator? The Bible says that a man who says in his heart that there is no God is a fool.

There was good reason why the three wise men were called wise--they looked above them for guidance and it came to them in the form of a star. It just so happened that the star they discovered was the Christ child. The wisest discovery of all time. (Sources cited are available)

About the author: Pastor of Faith Fellowship Church in Broken Arrow, OK. (918-451-0270)

Monday, June 16, 2008

The Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

Author: Sam Vaknin

Arguably the most intractable philosophical question attached to Quantum Mechanics (QM) is that of Measurement. The accepted (a.k.a. Copenhagen) Interpretation of QM says that the very act of sentient measurement determines the outcome of the measurement in the quantum (microcosmic) realm. The wave function (which describes the co-existing, superpositioned, states of the system) ""collapses"" following an act of measurement.

It seems that just by knowing the results of a measurement we determine its outcome, determine the state of the system and, by implication, the state of the Universe as a whole. This notion is so counter-intuitive that it fostered a raging debate which has been on going for more than 7 decades now.

But, can we turn the question (and, inevitably, the answer) on its head? Is it the measurement that brings about the collapse – or, maybe, we are capable of measuring only collapsed results? Maybe our very ability to measure, to design measurement methods and instrumentation, to conceptualize and formalize the act of measurement and so on – are thus limited and ""designed"" as to yield only the ""collapsible"" solutions of the wave function which are macrocosmically stable and ""objective"" (known as the ""pointer states"")?

Most measurements are indirect - they tally the effects of the system on a minute segment of its environment. Wojciech Zurek and others proved (that even partial and roundabout measurements are sufficient to induce einselection (or environment-induced superselection). In other words, even the most rudimentary act of measurement is likely to probe pointer states.

Superpositions are notoriously unstable. Even in the quantum realm they last an infinitesimal moment of time. Our measurement apparatus is not sufficiently sensitive to capture superpositions. By contrast, collapsed (or pointer) states are relatively stable and lasting and, thus, can be observed and measured. This is why we measure only collapsed states.

But in which sense (excluding their longevity) are collapsed states measurable, what makes them so? Collapse events are not necessarily the most highly probable – some of them are associated with low probabilities, yet they still they occur and are measured.

By definition, the more probable states tend to occur and be measured more often (the wave function collapses more frequently into high probability states). But this does not exclude the less probable states of the quantum system from materializing upon measurement.

Pointer states are carefully ""selected"" for some purpose, within a certain pattern and in a certain sequence. What could that purpose be? Probably, the extension and enhancement of order in the Universe. That this is so can be easily substantiated by the fact that it is so. Order increases all the time.

The anthropocentric (and anthropic) view of the Copenhagen Interpretation (conscious, intelligent observers determine the outcomes of measurements in the quantum realm) associates humans with negentropy (the decrease of entropy and the increase of order).

This is not to say that entropy cannot increase locally (and order decreased or low energy states attained). But it is to say that low energy states and local entropy increases are perturbations and that overall order in the Universe tends to increase even as local pockets of disorder are created. The overall increase of order in the Universe should be introduced, therefore, as a constraint into any QM formalism.

Yet, surely we cannot attribute an inevitable and invariable increase in order to each and every measurement (collapse). To say that a given collapse event contributed to an increase in order (as an extensive parameter) in the Universe – we must assume the existence of some ""Grand Design"" within which this statement would make sense.

Such a Grand Design (a mechanism) must be able to gauge the level of orderliness at any given moment (for instance, before and after the collapse). It must have ""at its disposal"" sensors of increasing or decreasing local and nonlocal order. Human observers are such order-sensitive instruments.

Still, even assuming that quantum states are naturally selected for their robustness and stability (in other words, for their orderliness), how does the quantum system ""know"" about the Grand Design and about its place within it? How does it ""know"" to select the pointer states time an again? How does the quantum realm give rise to the world as we know it - objective, stable, certain, robust, predictable, and intuitive?

If the quantum system has no a-priori ""awareness"" of how it fits into an ever more ordered Universe – how is the information transferred from the Universe to the entangled quantum system and measurement system at the moment of measurement?

Such information must be communicated superluminally (at a speed greater than the speed of light). Quantum ""decisions"" are instantaneous and simultaneous – while the information about the quantum system's environment emanates from near and far.

But, what are the transmission and reception mechanisms and channels? Which is the receiver, where is the transmitter, what is the form of the information, what is its carrier (we will probably have to postulate yet another particle to account for this last one...)?

Another, no less crucial, question relates to the apparent arbitrariness of the selection process. All the ""parts"" of a superposition constitute potential collapse events and, therefore, can, in principle, be measured. Why is only one event measured in any given measurement? How is it ""selected"" to be the collapse event? Why does it retain a privileged status versus the measurement apparatus or act?

It seems that preferred states have to do with the inexorable process of the increase in the overall amount of order in the Universe. If other states were to have been selected, order would have diminished. The proof is again in the pudding: order does increase all the time – therefore, measurable collapse events and pointer states tend to increase order. There is a process of negative, order-orientated, selection: collapse events and states which tend to increase entropy are filtered out and statistically ""avoided"". They are measured less.

There seems to be a guiding principle (that of the statistical increase of order in the Universe). This guiding principle cannot be communicated to quantum systems with each and every measurement because such communication would have to be superluminal. The only logical conclusion is that all the information relevant to the decrease of entropy and to the increase of order in the Universe is stored in each and every part of the Universe, no matter how minuscule and how fundamental.

It is safe to assume that, very much like in living organisms, all the relevant information regarding the preferred (order-favoring) quantum states is stored in a kind of Physical DNA (PDNA). The unfolding of this PDNA takes place in the physical world, during interactions between physical systems (one of which is the measurement apparatus).

The Biological DNA contains all the information about the living organism and is replicated trillions of times over, stored in the basic units of the organism, the cell. What reason is there to assume that nature deviated from this (very pragmatic) principle in other realms of existence? Why not repeat this winning design in quarks?

The Biological variant of DNA requires a biochemical context (environment) to translate itself into an organism – an environment made up of amino acids, etc. The PDNA probably also requires some type of context: the physical world as revealed through the act of measurement.

The information stored in the physical particle is structural because order has to do with structure. Very much like a fractal (or a hologram), every particle reflects the whole Universe accurately and the same laws of nature apply to both. Consider the startling similarities between the formalisms and the laws that pertain to subatomic particles and black holes.

Moreover, the distinction between functional (operational) and structural information is superfluous and artificial. There is a magnitude bias here: being creatures of the macrocosm, form and function look to us distinct. But if we accept that ""function"" is merely what we call an increase in order then the distinction is cancelled because the only way to measure the increase in order is structurally. We measure functioning (=the increase in order) using structural methods (the alignment or arrangement of instruments).

Still, the information contained in each particle should encompass, at least, the relevant (close, non-negligible and non-cancelable) parts of the Universe. This is a tremendous amount of data. How is it stored in tiny corpuscles?

Either utilizing methods and processes which we are far even from guessing – or else the relevant information is infinitesimally (almost vanishingly) small.

The extent of necessary information contained in each and every physical particle could be somehow linked to (even equal to) the number of possible quantum states, to the superposition itself, or to the collapse event. It may well be that the whole Universe can be adequately encompassed in an unbelievably minute, negligibly tiny, amount of data which is incorporated in those quantum supercomputers that today, for lack of better understanding, we call ""particles"".

Technical Note

Our Universe can be mathematically described as a ""matched"" or PLL filter whose properties let through the collapsed outcomes of wave functions (when measured) - or the ""signal"". The rest of the superposition (or the other ""Universes"" in a Multiverse) can be represented as ""noise"". Our Universe, therefore, enhances the signal-to-noise ratio through acts of measurement (a generalization of the anthropic principle).


Ollivier H., Poulin D. & Zurek W. H. Phys. Rev. Lett., 93. 220401 (2004). Zurek W. H. Arxiv, Preprint (2004).

About the author: Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.

Sunday, June 15, 2008

The Kensington Runestone

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

Contrary to the Hobbesian prediction of anarchy (freedom) and brutish or unproductive results in the event that elites (often termed 'beneficent paternalism') aren't fostered: we find lots of evidence that team play and open organizational structure actually creates more civilized and productive governance. Lincoln Electric in Cleveland is a well-documented example of how sharing the wealth and responsibility builds communication and profit. A Brazilian city named Porto Allegro that opened itself to citizen involvement and socialist ideals is flourishing as corruption wanes. It was predicted they would fail financially but more than a decade of good results has been the outcome. Singapore reduces government as a percentage of GDP and is fully modernized. Instead of 'expertise' being the solution, it might well be these technocrats in bureaucracies are the problem.

Archaeology Magazine has a frequent contributor named Professor Wiseman who comes under our critical gaze for all his fine 'expertise'. He truly has struck a sore spot in our view of what is real about the Runestone at Kensington. Most importantly he did his duty just after he was proven wrong in a conference of 'experts' from many of his own colleagues as well as other disciplines. It was February, 2001 when we read his 'Camelot in Kentucky' attack on the most speculative of all articles that hit the newsstands in early 2001, about Europeans in America or Diffusionist History. Shortly thereafter this organ of the gods of archaeology had a piece on the natural landforms of the desert that became the Sphinx and Pyramids. No credit due to man and science in ancient times is allowed, it seems. In fact all of us are mere 'post-modern speculative' trash as he would have it. We hit the ceiling and laughed simultaneously. Let's allow his own words to prove our point (again).

""Perhaps unwittingly, Stengel follows in the footsteps of the hyper-diffusionists, raising old hoaxes exposed long ago. He brings up once again the Kensington, Minnesota, Rune Stone with its account of Scandinavian visitors in 1392, which over the past century has been repeatedly rejected as a forgery by scholars, most recently by Stephen Williams, a curator emeritus of Harvard's Peabody Museum, in his book Fantastic Archaeology...

Refutation of baseless speculation {That is YOU, if you are thinking!} and repeated resurrection of previously exposed frauds and forgeries is a seemingly endless task. So it seems to the teachers who must explain year after year to new groups of students that reports of Celtic inscriptions in the Precolumbian Midwest or Phoenicians in Brazil are false. The problem is aggravated by a spreading notion in Western society that all opinions should be given equal weight and are valid until proven wrong. In this Post-Modern democratization of ideas, utter speculation by the uninformed ranks alongside the reasoned hypotheses of scholars and other experts in the field.""(9)

The Midwest Archaeology Conference held at the Radisson in St. Paul, Minnesota in the November before this article was printed found a completely different and more complete investigational answer. They had only one 'debunker' dissenter who thought Wiseman might be right. The historian with the records from the royal court of Norway. The top linguist who showed the flaws in earlier scholarship. No one alive at the time this stone was discovered could have known what information was held within the syntax and vernacular usages of the time it actually was written or inscribed. It was shortly thereafter that scholars saw these things yet it has been a hundred years and many books have been written. Three questionable witnesses have said their father or grandfather forged the stone. I guess you could liken them to jailhouse confessions but why did they need three different 'confessors' when only one did it in each case? The chemical engineer and all the other archaeologists present at this meeting were engaged in ""utter speculation by the uninformed ranks"" according to Prof. Wiseman and Archaeology Magazine.

There are people today engaged in ridiculing Farley Mowat because he is showing how the Scots of St. Albans came here before the Norse (if there is any difference between Pictish Scots and Gothic Norse) who settled L'Anse-aux-Meadows. You would think these people would know when they are beat, but the BIG LIE affects a large percentage of people who never really evaluate the facts. Mowat was a key factor in the battle to get the Norse point of view across in his book Westviking. One such ridiculer or paid hatchetman said Mowat has no experience in the north of the Canadian Arctic. My oldest brother's first wife's father was a missionary in the Arctic before becoming a Chartered Accountant. He lived with Farley for two years there. Farley came to our lake and visited, but I never met him. Let me assure you the experts often have no integrity. Their example is part of the reason why our kids lie and cheat (on tests in American schools, Reader's Digest said 78% ADMIT cheating.) or grow up to be lawyers and politicians.

About the author: Columnist in The ES Press Magazine guest expert Author of Diverse Druids

Saturday, June 14, 2008

Alternative Energy Series Water - The Perfect Fuel

Author: Ed Howes

As a freshman in high school, I failed chemistry class due to an extreme disinterest in the entire subject. I do recall a demonstration in which the teacher hooked a large one and a half volt battery to a glass and wire electrolyzer that transformed water into separated hydrogen and oxygen. I would later learn that commercial hydrogen and oxygen producers also used this method in an inefficient manner that requires more energy than the fuel produced can generate through combustion.

In the late eighties I would learn that a boy genius in California learned to make hydrogen from water efficiently with a twelve volt battery and standard auto electrical system, during the 1970s. Around 1990, my machinist neighbor built a hydrogen generator that did not work due to defects in the plans the boy genius had drawn up in prison when he was no longer a boy.

My neighbor was not interested in correcting the defect when it was discovered and I was only a bit disappointed. My father was a hobby style inventor and he gave me a good idea for a cheaper and much more effective 12 volt hydrogen generator. I never got around to building it and decided there was no point in separating the oxygen and the hydrogen after splitting the water.

Because the hydrogen and oxygen have opposite electrical charges, they readily recombine as a compound I call hydrox. The man who discovered this gas and fooled with it to make underwater welders and cutting torches, named the gas after himself, so hydrox is also known as Brown's gas. Simply put, hydrox is an oxygenated fuel, which means it burns hotter and faster than a non oxygenated fuel. In WWII the Germans used hydrogen peroxide as a liquid rocket fuel. H2O2 is a super oxygenated fuel, highly caustic, corrosive and dangerous to work with. Hydrox, however, is no more corrosive than water. Flat plate electrodes one sixteenth inch apart, made of stainless steel will last a long time if clean water is used. Clean water can be had from relatively inexpensive filters which can be carried on a vehicle. Having a good filter can also help supply one with potable water when clean water no longer flows from the pipes at home.

Big Energy talks only about a hydrogen economy - using expensive technology to manufacture a product that can be made inexpensively by anyone who wants it. The idea of water power is far too democratic to control. The rain falls both on the just and the unjust. If people put water in their fuel tanks and make enough fuel with a few watts of electricity that then makes kilowatts or megawatts of power in a combustion engine, who will buy hydrogen at fueling stations? Most Americans buy water cheaply compared to its value because of its relative abundance. In the U.S. it is usually cheaper to buy than to collect, store or drill for. Dry nations only need water pipelines from neighboring wet nations. Seaside countries can desalinate and filter sea water and pipe where needed. How can the corporate fascists gain control of water? Only by convincing everyone we need their new technology.

Water is to democratic energy access as the internet is to democratic discussion, information distribution and personal activism. This fact will be concealed for as long as possible and a few of us will be wise to the game. Without water we cannot live long. It exists in altered forms with special properties. When we know what there is to know about water, we will be wiser than any who have come before.

Engineers forge ahead building hydrogen fuel cells. These cells apparently generate electricity by recombining hydrogen and oxygen. This means that hydrox will not be suitable as fuel cell fuel. However, simple electrolysis costs little more to collect the two gasses separately and send them to the appropriate ports of the fuel cell. Thus, water can power these fuel cells as easily as combustion engines of many types, including jet and rocket engines. It is also likely from basic chemistry that steam is more easily electrolyzed than liquid water. Temperature rises speed chemical reactions. Steam is quite easy to create with combustion engines, which are the space heaters for the great outdoors.

I often wonder why greenhouse gasses are so readily blamed for global warming, while billions of super space heaters are seldom accused of much contribution. Fuel cells would be a fine solution to all this combustion heat. How many volcanoes would we need to equal the heat of transportation every day? Are we not burning up the planet one day at a time especially for the sake of corporate profit? Why do we so willingly play the game of don't blame me, I just do as I'm told?

When water is our fuel, the environment does not suffer crisis when a spill occurs on a highway, an ocean or a storage container ruptures. When water is our fuel, old ships can run aground, break up in a storm and not destroy hundreds of miles of coastline and wildlife environment. When water is our fuel, cars do not burst into flame during rear end collisions. The great betrayers of humanity have known what I am saying for more than a hundred years, and don't want us to have water power. Is it not time for some changes? Shall we choke ourselves and our children for corporate profits? What is our reward?

Hydrogen and hydrox are both gaseous fast burn fuels, just as vaporized alcohol, gasoline and diesel; except even faster burning with much greater power potential, also producing the usual oxides of nitrogen, unless in fact such oxides mostly form in slow burn engines due to the long burn time. In this case we can expect greatly reduced oxides of nitrogen with water fuel, as well. When we make water fuel at home we can operate stoves and heaters and combustion or fuel cell electric generators and make electricity for a few pennies per kilowatt. Do you imagine the electric utilities will be happy they do not need to purchase more generating capacity? Will they want us to supply them at wholesale prices? Could developing countries adopt water power and internet connections to vault ahead to the 21st Century? Is clean, cheap power a huge threat to all the traditional power? Of course it is. That is why the science savior has not provided us with this miracle of the 19th Century. How does it feel to be one or two centuries behind existing technology? Is it not shameful and embarrassing? Humiliating?

The corporate scientists, engineers and energy experts will continue telling us it is impossible to make hydrogen as cheaply as some garage and basement scientists and engineers have been doing for decades. The sad thing is we will just say OK, we believe you. There is no such thing as conspiracy except in the mind of radicals.

About the author: Freelance writer published on many websites and newspapers.

Friday, June 13, 2008

The Most Perfect Diamonds In The World And Where They Come From

Author: Frank Hague

Diamonds are allotropes of carbon , whose hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry.

Diamond in Greek means ""impossible to tame"". Diamonds are found mainly in central and southern Africa ,although significant sources of the mineral have been discovered in Canada ,Russia ,Brazil ,and Australia.

There are Synthetic Diamonds and Natural Diamonds.

There is something so special about diamonds, and they are so valuable, that people have been trying to make them for a long time.

Synthetic diamonds were first produced in 1953, in Stockholm ,Sweden by ASEA ,Sweden's major electrical manufacturing company. Pressure was maintained within a device at an estimated 83,000 atmospheres for an hour to produce these diamonds.

It now seems that it is possible to make diamonds in a laboratory so perfect down to the same atomic structure that DeBeers, the world's largest diamond consortium, is running scared.

And you know what, these diamonds can be made and sold at a profit.

Apparently there are in Russia alone 5 laboratories producing synthetic diamonds that have the same atomic structure as natural diamonds but with ONE difference, they are too perfect. They have the same characteristics as real diamonds, the same hardness, same conductivity, the same sparkle.

Different types of Synthetic Diamonds

2 different processes are being used to produce Synthetic Diamonds:

The oldest process uses pressure, lots of it, and carbon.

Since diamonds are carbon, eventually people were able to make diamonds in this manner, but these diamonds were easily distinguishable from natural diamonds.

Originally, the pressure process was developed by GE and, by major manufacturers, on a much larger scale.

There is also a cubic press system.

The newest process actually grows diamonds layer by layer as a chemical process and is called Chemical vapor deposition. This process allows many new uses for diamonds which in the past had previously been either too expensive to implement or too difficult to make.

The most important characteristic of CVD diamond growth is the ability to control the properties of the diamond produced.

Diamonds are now being used to machine tools, especially for non-ferrous alloys. CVD diamond also has applications in electronics. Conductive diamond has been demonstrated as a useful electrode under many circumstances.

Diamonds are also being used as radiation detection devices. Diamonds also have uses as semiconductors because the diamonds can be contaminated with impurities.

Diamond is the ideal material. It can be used in computers to run them at speeds that would melt anything on the market today.

Diamonds can also replace rubies to make lasers of extreme power.

Diamonds can be used as memory storage devices which could be so small as to allow a cellphone to fit into a watch and an iPod to store 20,000 movies.

About the author: Frank Hague is very interested in diamonds.

Sunday, June 08, 2008

Leonardo Da Vinci

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

THE BICYCLE OF LEONARDO DA VINCI: - "… a man who was at once an artist, an inventor, a scientist - and who saw no contradiction between these diverse realms.

In his unceasing quest for truth, Leonardo explored every branch of the sciences known to his age and proved to be far ahead in many respects in his precise observations, his striving for sound methodology and measurement, and the value he placed on empirical proof. 'No human investigation', he wrote, 'can be called true science without going through the mathematical tests… the sciences which begin and end in the mind cannot be considered to contain truth, because such discourses lack experience, without which nothing reveals itself with certainty."" (57)

This quote is from a semi-whitewash of a life full of conflict, especially with the church. They should emphasize the oppressive control over thought and creativity the church of Leonardo's day had over all sciences. In fact there was only one science - philosophy which in actual fact was just theology. So Leonardo's words take on a different meaning than they suggest. It is even more important than you might imagine because Leonardo was the head or 'Nautonnier' of the Priory of Sion. The authors are from Catholic Universities mostly, so we must forgive them when they claim to have fostered Leonardo's genius when in fact they did the opposite and it isn't till near the end of the book they note he was charged with being homosexual by these Inquisitorial suppressors of soul and thought.

There is a whole specialty of study devoted to Da Vinci's work but little truth and a lot of propaganda. Few are they who admit both he and his mentor were alchemists and the horrors of a life hidden behind lies and half-truths that resulted from the fear of being found out. It is a theme of many of the great scientists and their lives, and little credit is given to the courageous men and women who toiled to understand and the truth they shared is available. Why? Do we still fear others might do what they did or think? Think for themselves and question the authority which seeks to credit their approach to knowing.

The Scientific Method of observation and conclusion is said to have been discovered by Bacon. There is some truth to that, but which Bacon? Some say Francis and there is no truth in that even though he pretended to be an alchemist in his Rosicrucian or Masonic circles including John Dee and Ashmolean types. The better scholars attribute it to Roger Bacon who actually was an alchemist and spent a great deal of his life in dungeons after having ferreted himself away in the church as a monk for a long time. Metaphysics and independent thought can be a dangerous business and there are many current authors whose work is relegated to obscurity unless they learn how to appease the 'normative' or oppressive mindset. The sad part is that there is no benefit to anyone by such oppression. Not only is there abundance and creativity but those who know the soul will not NEED to clothe it in grandiose raiment. They will gladly work for the joy of utilizing their potential for the benefit of mankind rather than seeking to destroy others and life in general.

It is interesting that Napoleon (a Merovingian/Mason) made sure to get all of Da Vinci's work that was around when he conquered Milan, but I there is some of it that wasn't discovered until after that and it is most interesting. Da Vinci was a Johannite like Newton (another alchemist, whose Principiae Mathematica had a brief comment at its' start - 'This is much more than I should say; and much less than there is!'). Johannites believe the true prophet in Biblical times was John the Baptist and we are continuing to seek other Benjaminite and Masonic connections with him despite a sense that both Jesus and John the Baptist were operating from the same source. Would Napoleon have destroyed any Johannite writings if the Merovingian House of David and Judah or family of Jesus were concerned about Da Vinci's fame and credibility or writings? We cannot say such a thing and we aren't sure John wasn't a favourite of theirs as well.

The troubling thing about this book is the presentation of Da Vinci as a semi-competent who needed a Franciscan monk's help. We like Francis of Assisi and don't doubt the church was watching over Leonardo just as they did all artists who were producing God's work. Yes, the church claimed all creative work was their property! They also controlled education just as they have in many places until this very day. Most likely Luca Pacioli (Franciscan) was under directions to keep Da Vinci in line and to make such things as we will see, remain hidden from the public. Da Vinci was before Galileo and you can be sure he would have met the usual gruesome heretical stake or fire after a few parts were titillated or cut along the way.

These are the words of the Catholic University academic which give a little insight to the conflict Da Vinci faced during these oppressive times when thought was even less well managed than today. ""Leonardo and Luca Pacioli worked together for many years, and as we have seen, the intervention of Master Luca was decisive. Nevertheless there existed between the two categories a social and hierarchical conflict, even if no one had ever placed in doubt the supremacy of the liberal arts as the only depositories of true science. And the one who rose up resolutely against the exclusion of the mechanical arts from the sphere of science {Such deceit to call what the church allowed people to think of, as science.}, or as it was then known, 'philosophy' was Leonardo."" (58)

The best part of the whole book for me is the bicycle. It has a chain drive mechanism that looks like a 19th century model of something he would have seen in the future. His representation is not engineered so perfectly that he would have been able to inspect it however. It had no steering mechanism, for example. On top of the original drawing that was discovered long after the death of all parties is a childish drawing of a penis to look like a cat with legs. Still they don't actually use words to say he was 'gay' and we know he would say something about this if he was alive today. It is a certain thing about propaganda - great people become more manageable after they die - you can 'spin' their image to your hearts desire. In the case of Jesus they make him over every century! I guess all the priests abusing children across North America and the court awards have made them a little sensitive - can you say risk management? Can you say hypocrites? They still exclude 'gays' from all sorts of things and marriage is just one of them. Maybe this is the area 'master' Luca was most instructive to Da Vinci?! It is an area of their expertise but what Da Vinci was able to produce, is not.

""While they recognize the unmistakable nature of this machine, the few scholars who have examined the drawing are decidedly reluctant to admit its antiquity. Since the application of the chain-drive goes back only to the end of the 19th century, they propose a dating of the drawing within the early years of the present century. Such a hypothesis, however, collides with insurmountable difficulties: (1) The page in question remained hidden for almost four centuries, and it is unimaginable that 70 or 80 years ago a boy would have obtained from the directorship of the Biblioteca Ambrosiana the permission to view the codex, detach one or two of the pages, and then draw upon them and glue them back again. (2) Even in that case, he would have drawn a bicycle of a type then existent, not one of wood with wheelbarrow wheels, {And this imaginary child the academics try to say drew the cat/penis, would have been a pretty smart kid to know the name of Leonardo's pupil/model/lover. There is a small matter of his signature.} no means of steering, and the teeth of the central gear so squared off that they could not be fitted to the chain. (3) The odd toothed wheels and the chain coincide exactly with those drawn by Leonardo in Codex Madrid 1, folio 10 recto. (4) We cannot separate the bicycle from the other drawings visible in folios 132 verso and 133 verso of the Codex Atlanticus. Actually they were drawn when the pages were united at the two halves of one page. Reuniting them, we see that another hand has drawn, also in pencil and from left to right, two pornographic drawings obviously meant as a joke, over which, on the right side, is clearly written 'salaj', that is, Salai, the name of Leonardo's pupil, model and servant...To become a reality, the idea required the final solution of some challenging problems such as the matter of steering and the adaptation of the large squared off teeth with their jutting comers to the links of the chain… Salai entered Leonardo's house in 1490, aged 10." (59)

How did Leonardo draw about half of the design of such as bike? The best answer is that he looked into the 'Philosopher's Stone' of his patron/alchemist or he developed one of his own like Nostradamus. It is not an easy thing to do, but I think he could have done it. If he actually traveled through time he would have been able to draw a bike and many other things like his famous helicopter. When looking into a 'Stone' there are many confusing images of possible future and jumbled realities. We know that many within the Catholic Church have studied these things (e.g. Aquinas) and that they know about the 'Stone'. In recent times a Catholic cleric developed a Chronovisor in conjunction with top physicists including Enrico Fermi, according to one report I have seen.

We know they would have been very concerned about Leonardo telling the world about many things he knew. The Gnostics were heretics because they said things like: 'The Original Sin that separates us from God is Ignorance!' Who is passing on whether or not you are a heretic because you believe in the possibility of a 'Stone' today? Yes, most of society! Few have any idea of what an alchemist is or what contributions they've made to humanity, the quantum physicists were called 'atom-mysticists' when they spoke of the things chaos science and alchemy has studied for over 13,000 years. This is why we don't need an Inquisition. Because the media and education system is more effective!

The titles and grandiloquent appointments of the egotistical chest-beating ecclesiasts who follow in the footsteps of the money- changers whose tables Jesus over-turned in the Roman-backed Temples are so fantastic that any impressionable person can easily think THEY must know! This is the technique of 'The BIG lie!' If you make an ass of your true self (the soul) by saying you are 'Holy' and an 'Emperor', it is no matter. Just continue to add all the nations and states you have under your control. Say you are the sole representative of God on earth, and that the universe revolves around you. It might work as well as saying disease comes from 'sins and demons' and 'women are the harbingers of THE Original Sin'. Actually any human is able to know what Jesus called 'the living father within'. Are we really out of the influence of the 'Dark Ages'? I'd like to debate that with the Pope or some other proselyte.

About the author: guest writer Author of Diverse Druids Columnist in The ES Press Magazine,

Saturday, June 07, 2008

Alternative Energy Series Cheap, Clean Energy Everywhere Now!

Author: Ed Howes

I had sincerely hoped to profit from the things I have learned about energy over the past 20 years. Much time has passed without progress. I never found anyone to help or encourage me to bring these not so new technologies to market, so here I will offer them to the world and see if anyone might find value in free information.

The combustion process 19th Century engineering gave us, I call slow burn. Over the past century this technology has been retained because it provided great profits to Big Oil, Big Energy, Big Banking and Big Government, through fuel taxes; a very big conspiracy to rip off global consumers. All have agreed on the desirability of using more than twenty times the fossil fuel needed for inferior performance that poisons the world's air, soil and water. Indeed, it may be demonstrated in the near future that liquid fuel technology has squandered fifty times more fuel than needed per developed horsepower.

Fast burn technology, developed by Canadian, Charles Pogue, in the late nineteen forties, bought and suppressed by automakers, is a fifty five year old solution.

Charles had easily solvable power problems with his hot vapor, fast burn, gasoline fuel system. But he refused to address the performance problem in his quest to achieve 300 mile per gallon fuel economy, after successfully surpassing 200 miles per gallon with a 1937 Ford V-8 sedan. This at a time when fuel was relatively cheap in North America and few would trade power for economy. I solved these problems in a simple fashion and never built a conversion to demonstrate the solutions. This was due partly to fear of the opposition and an unreliable sense of market timing.

The old slow burn technology makes just enough vapor in a combustion chamber to light the mixture with a spark or compression heat in a diesel engine. At the same time heat begins to vaporize liquid fuel to a combustible state, pressures build to great heights and prevent rapid vaporization of the remaining fuel. In addition, the unvaporized fuel absorbs great amounts of heat that cannot contribute to combustion pressure, which creates power. This rich or fuel heavy mixture serves to lower and regulate the peak and average combustion temperatures throughout an unnecessarily long combustion cycle. This process uses a surplus of fuel that passes out to atmosphere unburned. The catalytic converter was the industry response to cleaning this unburned fuel.

Fast burn technology does just the opposite of slow burn. In a slow burn four stroke combustion engine there is fire in the cylinder for more than one complete crankshaft revolution. That is, somewhere between 360 and 420 degrees of rotation. The power stroke is a 180 degree event and if we use a bicycle crank for comparison, we can see that most of the power is delivered in half of the full stroke, centered on the mid point. That is, cylinder pressure creates the greatest torque when the piston is half way through the power stroke. The engine will easily provide all the power needed for cruise and moderate acceleration if there is only enough fuel available to make cylinder pressure fifteen or twenty degrees before and after the midpoint of the power stroke; a controlled power stroke of thirty to forty degrees. This is controlled by metering fuel so all fuel is burned up in an oxygen rich environment and the emissions will now be hot air and trace amounts of oxides of nitrogen.

Most children learn at a young age, they can pass their finger through a candle flame without pain or injury by moving their finger through the flame quickly. Such is the secret of fast burn technology. Temperatures that would melt engine parts like valves and pistons if maintained for four hundred degrees of crankshaft rotation are no problem if the burn cycle only lasts for a maximum of one hundred degrees in the case of maximum power. Performance enthusiasts looking for that extra 50 horsepower by adding fuel, are the ones most likely to melt parts. For these people - racers, hot rodders; engines likely to melt at high power outputs and too much fuel can and should be assembled with readily available thermal barrier coatings to prevent melt downs.

About ten years ago I read that the slow burn performance engine developed peak cylinder pressure at 15 to 18 degrees after top dead center, early in the power stroke. What if we could develop just twice that amount of cylinder pressure, three times as late in the power stroke? That is, at 45 - 54 degrees after top dead center. The answer is we would have more than three times the power at the point of greatest mechanical advantage in the power stroke as we do with the bicycle crank in the middle of its down stroke.

When there is absolutely no liquid fuel in our air/fuel mixture, the rate of combustion is many times greater than when there is an abundance of liquid fuel, as in the 19th century slow burn technology. This means we can supply spark much later and burn all the fuel in thirty degrees or less crankshaft rotation. An engine that can burn all its fuel in twenty degrees of crankshaft rotation will deliver twenty times the fuel economy of an engine that does not burn all its fuel in 400 degrees of rotation. Although the fast burn engine might generate peak temperatures and cylinder pressures three times higher than a slow burn engine, the burn time is so dramatically shortened that the engine will actually run cooler than slow burn engines. Smaller cooling systems will do the job at lower water temperatures, like the 160 degrees of old days.

It has never been the case that piston engines are inefficient and they could serve us very well into the Twenty Second Century as soon as we deep six their liquid, slow burn fuel systems. The reasons Charles Pogue never realized the tremendous power potential of his fast burn, 200 mile per gallon Ford sedan, was likely two things. The hot gasoline vapor made with exhaust system heat and inappropriate spark timing for an engine that required the spark to come about eighty crank degrees later than the timing it had as a slow burn factory engine. Combustion performance enthusiasts the world over, know the coldest, densest air/fuel mixture makes the best power. These people can also understand that making peak cylinder pressures when the piston is near the top of the power stroke, only tries to push the crankshaft out of the engine, onto the ground - wasted energy like standing on the bicycle pedal at the very top.

What we want is cold vapor fuel which is much more easily created than Charles' exhaust heated fuel. The secret is the vaporizing power of vacuum. Success in cold vaporizing has been demonstrated by radio frequency vaporizing chambers. But the piston engine operates on a vacuum system. In the days of carburetors, vacuum drew in the air to the engine's cylinders and metered the fuel fairly accurately by means of that same vacuum and simple mechanical adjustments to fuel flow.

Modern electronic fuel injection is perhaps the most expensive incremental improvement to slow burn technology in the Twentieth Century. It served multiple purposes. It exchanged a good, simple system, with a slightly better complex system. Computer controls took auto repair out of the realm of backyard mechanics and restricted it to $50 - 70 per hour service centers - a great big bonus for the auto service industry and a big expense to the do -it -yourselfer.

I am no combustion engineer, nor do I wish to become one. I can only say I intuitively expect two horsepower per cubic inch displacement on any four stroke spark engine modified for cold vapor fuel, using an appropriately sized carburetor as would be done on a slow burn engine.

I further expect that a performance modification that would increase the power of a slow burn engine by fifty percent, will increase the power of a fast burn engine by sixty to one hundred per cent. All the common power boosting practices work on fast burn engines better than slow burn. Compression ratios are not critical as the octane of pure vapor is up around 110. A 12 to one compression ratio would be about 9 to 1 at 45 degrees after top dead center, when the spark would occur at full power. While misfire can occur as often as 3 - 4 cycles per hundred on a new V-8 engine, misfires would be very rare with fast burn engines due to the lower compression at ignition and the evenness of a lean air/vapor mixture. The fast burn engine may be supercharged with a draw through carburetor producing the vacuum to operate a fresh air bubbler at the bottom of the fuel tank. If a richer vapor is desired in the bubbler, a racing fuel cell can be used, packed with fuel cell foam, greatly increasing the surface area exposed to liquid fuel, vacuum will readily vaporize. Large metal fuel tanks should be reinforced top and bottom by epoxying bar stock or angle stock, so they do not collapse under vacuum.

Lastly, I would like to mention that fast burn technology is a multi fuel system. With a little experimenting and fine tuning of mixture and spark, a fast burn engine can burn gasoline, alcohol, diesel, kerosene, vegetable oil, propane and liquefied natural gas. The fuel with the greatest latent energy per pound will deliver the best performance and the least powerful fuel will deliver very adequate performance. If you are anxious to try a fast burn conversion, please read my Fast Burn Conversion essay for tips and details for a safe conversion. Here's to big, clean, cheap power for the new age!

About the author: Freelance writer published on many websites and newspapers.

Friday, June 06, 2008

Human Origins

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

The issue of human evolution going back at least 9,000,000 (nine million) years and possibly even being upright by that time is another of the facts which when in my youth seemed totally ridiculous. Actually many mystics said it goes back twelve million years to when what could be called the missing link occurred. The matter of whether we descended from apes is still up in the air and more importantly it would appear the mystics were right about cross-breeding and shamanistic attunements to affect such things in many life forms. These qualitative or spiritual changes are reflected in an individual's life as they now prove the brain itself can evolve and change structure with the studies of Buddhist Monks and concert pianists or the likes of Hank Wesselmann who was helped by his shaman wife. Hank's brainwavelength is more controllably able to reach the same frequency as psychic surgeons and top Yogis as shown in a University of Illinois study.

I was touting the importance of Flores Island and the sea travel technology for years before the recent discovery of the Hobbit-like creature there. Some researchers say it is a cross between a chimp and a hominid. That would dovetail with the also currently-being-researched Bonobos who are a cross between a chimp and a gorilla. The Portuguese baby that is half Neanderthal is proof of cross-breeding despite the fact that these attunements are not traceable through DNA analysis as I see it. The following excerpt from an article in 2004 does not mention that researchers of human lice are now going on to check pubic lice in order to prove cross mating occurred. There will be debate no matter what they find but I think it speaks to much of the sex magic in Tantra and Dragon or serpent lore including what Sir Laurence Gardner and the Rosicrucians have written about.

"But it turns out that DNA analysis shows there are two distinct sub-species of head lice in humans. All over the world, except in western North America, they are the same. But there is a population of lice along the Pacific coast of North America which have been evolving separately from the rest of the world for about 1.8m years. The only way to make sense of this is to assume that their separate development took place on Homo erectus, who also split off from our hominid ancestors about that time ago.

So how could these lice have reached their present, wholly human hosts? It seems to me that this could only have happened through some act of primal genocide when Homo erectus met Homo sapiens somewhere in eastern Siberia. Lice can only travel between living bodies, or very freshly dead ones. If the transmission had been from living bodies, we would expect the same pattern in bodily lice. It isn't there. Nor is there any trace of Homo erectus in our DNA. So the lice must have come from very fresh corpses and it is hard to suppose that they had died peacefully just before the intruders turned up. The story of ""Ebu Gogo"" sounds more improving. According to local villagers, these creatures were around until about a century ago: three feet tall, hairy, and speechless, though they could imitate human speech, like parrots. The villagers tolerated them and even fed them, though they would only eat raw food, until they stole and ate a baby. They drove them from their cave with blazing bales of grass. Shortly thereafter, the villagers themselves moved off and western settlers arrived. The cave where the Ebu Gogo lived has not been found. But if it is - and scientists are looking - it might yield some extraordinary remains.

These wouldn't be technological. Perhaps the saddest aspect of the whole story is the slow loss of technology it implies. Ebu Gogo seems to have been a descendent of Homo erectus, also known as Java man, who reached the island about 840,000 years ago. This was almost certainly something that required boats, which seem a pretty human-level technology.

But because Flores is so far from anywhere that only boat-users or very strong swimmers - like elephants - can reach it, the mammals there seem to have shrunk to cope with the lack of food. The tiny hominids hunted a race of dwarf elephants, and ate for preference their babies, whose charred bones have been found in the cave. So they had fire once. They had tools, too; and presumably language. But their brains had shrunk to a quarter of the size of ours.

The Ebu Gogo recorded by the villagers had forgotten what language was for; they used no tools, and ate their food raw. At some stage, perhaps, their brains had shrunk so much that they were no longer truly human. The moral seems hard to escape. What makes us human is not our moral qualities. Ultimately, it's a question of getting enough to eat to grow the brains that are big enough for morality - and, indeed, genocide. * Andrew Brown is the author of The Darwin Wars: The Scientific War for the Soul of Man and In the Beginning Was the Worm: Finding the Secrets of Life in a Tiny Hermaphrodite. He also maintains a weblog, the Helmintholog (" (1)

The day after I posted the above I found that science now proves mamals were not only living far longer ago than we thought but they were evolved enough to be eating small dinosaurs. This makes it possible to speculate about an even older cultured mammal on earth as well as the probability that earlier hominids were more evolved than we thought. GGUAPI5M1.DTL

About the author: guest expert The ES Press Magazine columnist Author of Diverse Druids