Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Evolution and Intelligent Design

Author: Jeff Schweitzer, Ph.D.

What about evolution creates such a fuss in our society? We never witness peopel getting exercised about Quantum Mechanics, String Theory or the Theory of Relativity. But mention evolution and you invoke an immediate and visceral reaction. Local school boards are elected, rejected and then re-elected solely on this issue. No other scientific discovery is so deeply embedded into the fabric of American politics.

The debate about intelligent design in public schools is a uniquely American phenomenon, a quirk of our history and culture. Beyond the theocracies of the Middle East, religion permeates American politics in a way not found anywhere else in the world. No other developed country, east or west, is host to a serious political movement dedicated to the destruction of secularism.

We have to go all the way back to Italy in 1614 to find another example of a powerful political machine dedicated to the suppression of a broad scientific truth with deep implications for human understanding. That is the year in which Galileo's observations of the earth orbiting the sun were first denounced as a threat to the established authority of the Catholic Church, which claimed Galileo's doctrine to be false and contrary to the divine and Holy Scripture. We have regressed four centuries. Intelligent design is nothing but a transparent fig leaf for creationism, a child of that dark era in the 1600s. Comparing creationism or intelligent design to evolution is no different than insisting that we teach today that the sun actually orbits the earth as an alternative theory to modern astronomy. Only in the United States are such discredited views taken seriously by a large portion of the citizenry. We can and should do better. Intelligent design has no place in a science classroom.

Nevertheless, the debate will inevitably continue: evolution strikes at the core of expanding religiosity deeper than other scientific truths such as the age of the earth because the conclusions are more personal. Imagine yourself back in that amazing year of 1859 when Charles Darwin published his masterpiece. The day before Darwin's book was published, you woke up thinking yourself the image of God; the next morning you realize you have the face of a monkey. Not everybody immediately embraced this rude demotion. Resistance to the idea was inevitable, if not futile.

Sometimes the word ""theory"" associated with evolution is misunderstood to mean that the concept is not well established. Oddly, that burden is not shared by the Theory of Relativity. Einstein apparently hired a better publicist than Darwin, if not a better barber. Evolution is a fact, an undeniable, proven fact, as certain as the existence of atoms. Only some of the details of the mechanisms of evolution remain to be elucidated. Cancer is a fact, though not all the mechanisms leading to malignancy are understood. Theory does not imply uncertainty; instead, a grand idea, such as General Relativity or Evolution, can be well-established but remain under the rubric of a theory because the ideas encompass and explain a broad range of phenomena.

Complicating public acceptance of evolution as a scientific truth is the fact that society is still largely scientifically illiterate. Although understanding the basics of science is critical to everyday life in a technology-driven society, the subject is given only cursory treatment in most public schools. As a result, people are often poorly equipped to understand the complexities of an issue before forming an opinion about the costs and benefits of adopting or restricting a particular technology. The issue of therapeutic cloning offers a prime example. Religious bias and scientific illiteracy combine powerfully to restrict a technology with extraordinary potential for good, with little associated risk. The upside of therapeutic cloning could be cures for diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, and a host of other devastating diseases. There is no downside.

As religiosity has ascended in American life, policy debates have become faith-based rather than being anchored in logic. Support for a policy position becomes unmoved by contradictory facts because proponents simply ""believe"" the position to be correct even in the face of incontrovertible evidence to the contrary. That explains why 80% of Republicans still support the current president. Just as there is no way to determine relative validity between religions, or to diminish faith with facts, as soon as logic is removed from policy debates, competing positions are no longer evaluated based on relative merit, but are supported as inherently right, immune to any reasonable counter arguments. This slide away from secular debate leads increasingly to polarization, greater animosity and a loss of civility because the only way to support a position is simply to assert supremacy as loudly as possible. We are reduced to childlike tantrums of ""I'm right, you're wrong, I win."" Without logic, there is no common basis for discussion, and no way to mediate disputes. The death of secularism is the death of civility, and nothing demonstrates this more clearly than the debate about teaching science in schools free from religion.

About the author: Jeff Schweitzer spent much of his youth underwater pursuing his lifelong fascination with marine life. He obtained his doctorate from UCSD and has published in an eclectic range of fields, including neurobiology, marine science, international development, environmental protection and aviation. Visit www.JeffSchweitzer.com

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

What the Judges Look For in Science Fair Projects

Author: Jeremy Roehrich

Science fair judges have specific things in mind when they review projects. Sure, they like interesting pictures, colorful displays and seeing clever ideas, but they also look for other, more specific, technical features.

Let's take a peak at some grading sheets from a few science fairs.

One school used a point system to rate the most important elements of the project.

The ratings are below. What can we learn from this example judging sheet?

1) Know the Scientific Method well.

2) Know how to explain your project using the scientific method WITHOUT reading off your display.

3) Be enthusiastic and enjoy your information. Smile.

4) Create a detailed report fleshing out all the information included on your display.

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Sample 1:

1. Shows knowledge of the Scientific Method:

4 pt. Explains all 6 topics easily, shows understanding of conclusion. 3 pt. Explains at least 5 topics easily, shows understanding. 2 pt. Explains most topics with help from the board. 1 pt. Tries to answer questions asked by the judge.

2. Shows use of the Scientific Method through the board:

4 pt. Presents steps of method clearly and completely with headings 3 pt. Presents each step of method clearly 2 pt. Has each step on the board. 1 pt. Has some steps on the board.

3. Shows enthusiasm and interest in the project:

4 pt. Student is excited about the project and eagerly tells about it. 3 pt. Student is pleasant and shares information. 2 pt. Student tells about the project, when asked. 1 pt. Student answers some questions about the project.

4. Speaks knowledgeably about the project:

4 pt. Student eagerly talks with many details of the experimentation. 3 pt. Student shows understanding of the project. 2 pt. Student knows what the project is, giving minimal explanation. 1 pt. Student can answer questions when prompted.

5. Presents scientific data in a well-organized, visually appealing display:

4 pt. Board shows data in clear tables, charts, or pictures with headings. 3 pt. Board is neat and attractive, limited table, chart or pictures. 2 pt. Board has headings, using information stated. 1 pt. Board has headings and limited information.

6. Shows written evidence of research, experimentation and analysis :

4 pt. Booklet has Cover, Table of Contents, Research/Interviews. Thank you page and/or bibliography and experimentation included. 3 pt. Booklet has Cover, Table of Contents and Research/Interviews. 2 pt. Booklet has Cover and Some Research/Interview Data. 1 pt. Booklet is minimal or nonexistent.

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Sample 2:

I. Scientific Thought A. Does project follow the scientific method? B. Is the problem clearly stated? C. Are the procedures appropriate and organized? D. Is the information collected accurate and complete?

II. Creative Ability A. How unique or original is the project idea? B. Is it significant or unusual for a child this age?

III. Understanding A. Does it explain what the student learned about the topic? B. Does the project represent real study and effort? C. Does the project show the child is familiar with the topic?

IV. Clarity A. Does the student clearly communicate the nature of the problem, how the problem was solved, and the conclusion? B. Are the problems, procedures, data, and conclusions presented clearly and in a logical order? C. Does the student clearly and accurately articulate in writing what was accomplished? D. Is the objective of the project likely to be understood by one not trained in the subject area?

V. Dramatic Value A. Is the display visually appealing? B. Is the proper emphasis given to important ideas? C. Are all the components of the project done well?

VI. Technical Skill A. Was the majority of the work done by the student? B Has the student acknowledged help received from others? C. Does the written material show attention to grammar and spelling? D. Is the project physically sound and durably constructed?

For more information go to Science-Ideas.com .

About the author: Jeremy Roehrich holds a B.S. in Computer Security and is currently pursuing research in securing mobile devices.

Science Fair Project Idea articles like this one are available at Science-Ideas.com .

Monday, April 28, 2008

Let's Listen to Bill Clinton's Advice on Modern Biotechnology

Author: James Wachai

Since he left office, former U.S. President, Bill Clinton, has dedicated almost all his life championing the cause of the poor, here in America and abroad.

From winning concessions for cheaper drugs from multinational pharmaceutical companies to manage HIV/AIDS - the No. 1 killer disease in poor countries - to fundraising in aid of victims of Hurricane Katrina and Tsunami earthquake, President Clinton has joined the league of men and women who always nurse the dream of a world without hunger and diseases.

Last week, President Clinton continued his efforts when he advised delegates at the BIO 2006 Convention in Chicago to fight the culture of fear that seems to dominate the debate about modern biotechnology.

""We should be driven by science, evidence and argument, not by assertion and fear.""

President Clinton, a staunch supporter of genetic engineering during his presidency (and even now), reminded the delegates that ""...everything we do to build a world that will be fit for our children and grand children will depend upon continued advances in biotechnology.""

Modern biotechnology, as President Clinton puts it, is a technology that can't just be wished away by misrepresenting facts, a practice those opposed to this technology have perfected to an art.

Opponents of modern biotechnology and especially genetically engineered foods have taken it upon themselves to mislead and misrepresent. Such behavior only derails the drive to guarantee every man and woman in this world food.

Perhaps, nobody better understands the plight of the world's poor than President Clinton. He's a relentless globe trotter and has an eye-witness account of the sufferings of millions of hungry and malnourished children in Africa and Asia. All, then, should heed his advice that modern biotechnology holds the key to sustainable development .

President Clinton's endorsement of modern biotechnology as a tool to enhance global food security must be taken very seriously.

The world must learn to take the facts as it finds them and keep trying to move humanity forward.

About the author: James uses his communication expertise to create awareness about GM food.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

Crop Circles and Genetic Knowledge

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

CROP CIRCLES:

The crop circle enigma is not always a hoax. I am not able to see how someone could do a massive design overnight in the cases where the plants have their stems broken from within. Yes, that is the case in what I consider the real crop circles. The wheat or other plants have the stalk exploded from within and the stalks can be bent at a distance up the stalk which would not happen if the use of weighty rollers was applied to them. Thus we are able to speculate many things but I see no reason for it to be aliens or at least not a visit in physical form by extra-terrestrials.

There are many segments of this book that cover the science of energy and its lattice designs that I think relate to this phenomena. The designs are sometimes advanced mathematical theorems and there are many Keltic designs. The Kelts or their Druids and shamans were in tune with the Earth Energy Grid and that Grid is part of the larger Cosmic Thought Field that Affinity connects across universe. Thus if it is a message from some intelligence inside the Earth's 'event horizon' or local area network of dimensions we would expect to see Keltic designs if the Druids were in fact making representations of their attunements.

Why this simple factual and historically based observation is not made by other authors is beyond me. But I am constantly amazed by people's ability to deny the simple and obvious that is around them all the time. I can see why the media and paid hacks in academic circles do not wish to integrate history and ancient advanced sciences like Harmonics into their writings. The governments do not want the truth of the ancient Brotherhood to become common knowledge. They benefit greatly by the common perception that man is advancing and improving and man once was stupid and superstitious or a barbarian and hunched-back cave dweller. But I am the proud part owner of artifacts that go back to the pre-Ice Age period which show giraffes and lions as well as kaleidoscopic stones that function as books or almost a video. Thus I am in possession of a form of proof seldom seen in the annals of propaganda called scholarly or academic.

There are many possible ways that these rocks and masks or other artifacts could be made. All the ways are outside of what we credit the ancients with having. Lasers, sound rays or sonic drills, and the ability to alter the structural make up of matter through spiritual or mental attunement are possibly involved. Intelligence or consciousness does associate or coagulate and form banks of energy similar to each other. I first wrote about this some four decades ago as a teenager trying to explain the phenomena of ghosts and elementals.

When two muons shielded from cosmic rays like gamma rays were separated in the deep mines formerly used by INCO at Sudbury in Canada something occurred that I think relates to this. They energized one muon and the other one that had been connected with it responded. Do we therefore have the right to say all energy is connected by what might be called ESP? Is this Intelligent Design or Affinity at work?

What level of connectiveness is man capable of if mere sub-atomic muons have such a medium for communicating? Is this important enough to consider and learn as was once done? String Theory tells us that all matter is comprised of or built from 'one-dimensional harmonic forces'. Is this the LOGOS written about in the Bible (BBL in vowelless script that all languages once were)? Is the tower of Babel (BBL like the Bible and Byblos) that my Phoenician Kelts put into myths as the Father of Biblical Archaeology says is the case; when he says "The Bible is a Phoenician literary legacy"? Does anyone care to see and study these artifacts with me? Other correspondents of mine have similar rocks they go so far as to call a Philosopher's Stone. One of them is a genetic researcher and the ancients attuned to the interior designs of the animals they bred which I have spoken or written about for those same four decades. Genetic knowledge transfers from person to person when the genes are passed in sex and procreation. This is written about by the esoteric schools of thought as fact for millennia. The Hobbit or Bonobos and so many other things are part of this – possibly? What do you think? Nah – I am just a nutcase.

GERALD HAWKINS:

There is something about the Hawkins clan that I like. My most adept and austere teacher was a Hawkins related to Black Jack the Privateer and I wonder if this man who died recently while happily flying his model airplanes is one of them. I think it is very possible that genetic information transfer is real. Mathematics and astronomy was his forte but he also had a gift for Public Relations when he ran the contest to pay a large sum to anyone who could do the math in Crop Circles.

"Perhaps the most obvious scientific investigation that can be performed, when one is confronted with the intriguing shapes that crop circles can take, is a geometric analysis of the symbols. This was the approach followed by Dr. Gerald S. Hawkins, former chairman of the astronomy department at Boston University. Hawkins was probably the first person who unambiguously demonstrated that crop circles are much more than just some arbitrarily sized and randomly positioned patterns in the fields. After reading the bestseller Circular Evidence, in which an extensive overview was given of all British crop circles for the period 1978-1988, Hawkins analyzed all formations presented in this book. (2) In those early years the pictograms still had simple shapes: single circles, multiple circles in a pattern, and circles with concentric rings around them. All diagrams were put through a straightforward mathematical analysis, during which the proportions of the circle diameters and the areas inside the rings were determined. A total of twenty-five pictograms were taken into account.

Hawkins discovered that the resulting ratios revealed a strong correspondence to the white keys on a piano keyboard… In simple terms it boils down to the fact that the white keys on a piano keyboard can be logically related to the ordinal numbers 0, 2, 4 5, 7, 9 11, and 12. {Pythagoras developed the modern octave in music and all the crop circles have something to do with the 'Singing of the Spheres' he developed as part of what is in the Great Pyramid he learned it from. Harmonics and the inter-relating lattices of earth and cosmic energy are involved and not aliens as I see it.} When Hawkins determined the geometrical ratios from the individual pictograms, he discovered that all of these corresponded to integer numbers." (1)

About the author: Author of Diverse Druids Guest Writer at World-Mysteries.com Columnist in The ES Press Magazine

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Charles Darwin and the Giant Tortoise

Author: Michael Kerrigan

Charles Darwin is most famously known for his theory of evolution. He is less known for his 5 year voyage (1831-1836) around the world as an anthropologist.

Below, is an excerpt from his diary of this journey, describing the unusual behaviour of the giant tortoise on the Galapagos islands. It also describes Darwin's early 19th century methods of study, which were perhaps ""a little"" different than today's.

October 8th 1835

TORTOISE MEAT

We arrived at James Island. Mr Bynoe, myself, and our servants were left here for a week, with provisions and a tent, whilst the Beagle went for water.

We found here a party of Spaniards, who had been sent from Charles Island to dry fish, and to salt tortoise-meat.

About six miles inland, and at the height of nearly 2,000 feet, a hovel had been built in which two men lived, who were employed in catching tortoises, whilst the others were fishing on the coast. I paid this party two visits, and slept there one night....

While staying in this upper region, we lived entirely upon tortoise-meat: the breast-plate roasted with the flesh on it, is very good; and the young tortoises make excellent soup; but otherwise the meat to my taste is indifferent.

Mr. Lawson, an Englishman, and vice-governor of the colony, told us that he had seen several so large, that it required six or eight men to lift them from the ground; and that some had afforded as much as two hundred pounds of meat.

FRESH WATER AND THE TORTOISE

I have already shown, from the numbers which have been caught in a single day, how very numerous they must be. Some grow to an immense size: The old males are the largest, the females rarely growing to so great a size: the male can readily be distinguished from the female by the greater length of its tail.

The tortoises which live on those islands where there is no water, or in the lower and arid parts of the others, feed chiefly on the succulent cactus.

The tortoise is very fond of water, drinking large quantities, and wallowing in the mud. The larger islands alone possess springs, and these are always situated towards the central parts, and at a considerable height.

The tortoises, therefore, which frequent the lower districts, when thirsty, are obliged to travel from a long distance. Hence broad and well-beaten paths branch off in every direction from the wells down to the sea-coast; and the Spaniards by following them up, first discovered the watering-places.

When the tortoise arrives at the spring, quite regardless of any spectator, he buries his head in the water above his eyes, and greedily swallows great mouthfuls, at the rate of about ten in a minute.

The inhabitants say each animal stays three or four days in the neighbourhood of the water, and then returns to the lower country; but they differed respecting the frequency of these visits.

The animal probably regulates them according to the nature of the food on which it has lived. It is, however, certain, that tortoises can subsist even on these islands where there is no other water than what falls during a few rainy days in the year.

THE TORTOISE AND THE HARE

The tortoises, when purposely moving towards any point, travel by night and day, and arrive at their journey's end much sooner than would be expected. The inhabitants, from observing marked individuals, consider that they travel a distance of about eight miles in two or three days.

One large tortoise, which I watched, walked at the rate of sixty yards in ten minutes, that is 360 yards in the hour, or four miles a day--allowing a little time for it to eat on the road. ...They were at this time (October) laying their eggs.

DEATH OF A TORTOISE

The female, where the soil is sandy, deposits them together, and covers them up with sand; but where the ground is rocky she drops them indiscriminately in any hole: Mr Bynoe found seven placed in a fissure.

The egg is white and spherical; one which I measured was seven inches and three eighths in circumference, and therefore larger than a hen's egg.

The young tortoises, as soon as they are hatched, fall a prey in great numbers to the carrion-feeding buzzard.

The old ones seem generally to die from accidents, as from falling down precipices: at least, several of the inhabitants told me, that they never found one dead without some evident cause.

TORTOISE RODEO

The inhabitants believe that these animals are absolutely deaf; certainly they do not overhear a person walking close behind them.

I was always amused when overtaking one of these great monsters, as it was quietly pacing along, to see how suddenly, the instant I passed, it would draw in its head and legs, and uttering a deep hiss fall to the ground with a heavy sound, as if struck dead.

I frequently got on their backs, and then giving a few raps on the hinder part of their shells, they would rise up and walk away--but I found it very difficult to keep my balance.

There can be little doubt that this tortoise is an aboriginal inhabitant of the Galapagos; for it is found on all, or nearly all, the islands, even on some of the smaller ones where there is no water; had it been an imported species, this would hardly have been the case in a group which has been so little frequented.

About the author: Michael Kerrigan is the author or co-author of over 200 books on history, politics and literature. This article is part of an extract from his book: Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle. The full extract can be read at http://www.browsebooksforfree.com/books1-3

Friday, April 25, 2008

Competitions Past and Present: A Short History of Science Fairs

Author: Jeremy Roehrich

Without a doubt, science fairs aren't exclusively the domain of elementary schools. Some people are surprised to find out the magnitude and importance of international science fairs. The prizes can be fantastic and the accolades prestigious.

If you are an aspiring scientist or just a science buff, consider these international science competitions.

Today's Largest International Science Fair

The grand-daddy of them all is the world's largest pre-college scientific competition known as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The fair was founded in 1950 and is held in May. While the location of this competition changes annually, the fair is almost always held in the United States.

Whats the big deal? Well, about 1400 students compete from the world over. The winner is awarded a $50,000 college scholarship. Not too shabby, eh? All together the prizes total about $3,000,000. So there's plenty of prizes to go around, ranging from grants to scientific field trips.

Explaining how to win that big show is beyond the scope of this website, but if you want more information, visit the ""Science Service"". At the ""Science Service"" website you will find resources able to assist you in regards to judging criteria. The link is available at Science-Ideas.Com .

Other International Fairs

Ireland has their own national fair called the Young Scientist and Technology Exhibition. It has been running since 1965.

Winners of European national competitions have the opportunity to participate in the European Union Contest for Young Scientists. This show features the best in European scientific student achievement. The 2006 venue is Stockholm, Sweden.

In the running for most prestigious science competition is the Stockholm International Youth Science Seminar. This competition is for older youths aged from around 18 to the mid 20's. What makes this one so important? Well, it's held in connection to the Nobel Prize. Aside from that, only 25 people are invited to attend. These selected competitors have won other international science competitions in the past.

With all that in mind, set your goals in the clouds and reach out to become a competitor, or even better, a WINNER at one of these historically important and prestigious science fairs!

Articles like this one, along with Science Fair Project Ideas are available at Science-Ideas.Com .

About the author: Jeremy Roehrich holds a B.S. in Computer Security and is currently pursuing research in securing mobile devices.

Science Fair Project Idea articles like this one are available at Science-Ideas.com .

Thursday, April 24, 2008

Understanding the Scientific Method

Author: Jeremy Roehrich

Understanding the scientific method and how to follow it is critical to building a good reputation in the technical community. In regards to science fairs, as a student progresses in grade levels the judges are going to demand more and more focus on using the scientific method.

Here is my seven step description of the scientific method.

1. Define the question 2. Gather information and resources 3. Form hypothesis 4. Perform experiment and collect data 5. Analyze data 6. Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypotheses 7. Publish results

In science fair competitions, if you can show that you are following the scientific method, you are well on your way to impressing the judges.

Basically, start out by defining your question and topic. After that, form a hypothesis and perform your experiments. Step 6 is where you use that data to make any new hypotheses or theories about your science topic. If you want, you can take that new hypothesis you just developed and start again from step 3, then move your way back to 6. Follow this cycle as much as you want. The more focused your information and experiments the better.

Would you like an example to clarify how to use the scientific method?

Imagine you are doing your project on ""Hot water"" and we are going to follow the scientific method steps.

1. Define your question.

How about something silly, like ""Will boiling water burn a person's hand?""

2. Find lots of information about hot water and learn everything you can about it.

3. Now form a hypothesis based on your research. Our hypothesis is, ""A person will not suffer any burns due to contact with boiling water."" Hopefully you are smart enough to know this isn't true, but let's pretend we aren't just for the sake of the example.

4. Now we do perform our experiements. In real life we know we will burn ourselves with boiling water, and we should never touch it! But, suppose the experimenter has no idea. They run tests to see if contact with boiling water burns a person. BAD IDEA!

5. Now look at your data. Probably everyone in the experiments burned their skin during the tests. Looks like boiling water does cause burns! DUH!

6. Interpret the data. Hmm...our hypothesis was completely wrong. Our experiments showed that boiling water can cause burns.

7. Publish your results. I certainly hope you never make a project just like this, but here's your chance to show the world what happens when you touch boiling water!

Keep in mind, don't change your hypothesis because your final data did not agree with it. You don't get more credit for having a correct hypothesis. You get credit for following the scientific method and coming to a correct conclusion based on your data.

Don't forget to include possible reasons for experimental error.

If you follow these steps your project or experiment will make sense to anyone who views it and you have a good chance of succeeding!

For more information go to Science-Ideas.com.

Jeremy Roehrich holds a B.S. in Computer Security and is currently pursuing research in securing mobile devices.

Science Fair Project Idea articles like this one are available at Science-Ideas.com .

About the author: Jeremy Roehrich holds a B.S. in Computer Security and is currently pursuing research in securing mobile devices.

Science Fair Project Idea articles like this one are available at Science-Ideas.com .

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

An Overview of the Sun

Author: Richard Monk

The Sun is the centerpiece of our solar system, the gravity force that keeps everything together. Here is an overview of this source of our existence.

An Overview of the Sun

The Sun is a star, one of billions in the known universe. It is similar to other stars you see in the night sky, but is prominent in our lives because we orbit it once every 365 days.

The process pivotal in the creation of the Sun goes on to this very day. Roughly 4.5 billion years ago, a massive gas cloud surrounded by dust began to compress. As one small part gained in density, it started to produce a small gravitational pull. Over time, this sucked the rest of the gas and dust into an increasingly smaller area. Nobody is sure what first set off the gravity movement, but it may have been a supernova.

As the disk of material compressed, it created more gravity and sucked in more material. With spin induced, the disk produced heat. Throw in a bit of helium and trace elements and you have a cauldron that eventually became our Sun.

The actual process that fuels our Sun is called fusion. Fusion is fueled by the elements of the Sun to create what is essentially a ball of plasma. The atomic elements that act as fuel for this process are hydrogen and helium atoms. Hydrogen makes up roughly 74 percent of the mass of the Sun. Helium makes up roughly 24 percent. The remaining one percent consists of trace elements such as iron.

As to pure measurements, the Sun is pretty impressive. It does not have a solid surface, but it is generally considered to have a diameter of 864,900 miles. As a matter of comparison, the Earth has a diameter of some 7,900 miles. Every second, the Sun converts approximately 5 million tons of matter into energy. The outer layer of the sun averages roughly 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature at the core of the sun is 27 million degrees Fahrenheit.

The sun is expected to continue to keep burning for another 4.5 to 5 billion years. Break out the sun block!

About the author: Richard Monk is with FactsMonk.com - a site with facts about everything. Visit us to read more about the Sun and solar system .

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

O quanto dura 1 bilhão de anos?

Author: Ruben Zevallos Jr.

Um bilhão pode ser muito, se consideramos, que a nossa vida, na melhor das hipóteses, poderá chegar aos 70 anos. Que a vida na Terra, nasceu a, digamos, uns 500 milhões de anos? Pensando mais além, o nosso planeta, tem uns 5 Bilhões de anos... pensando assim, é pouco... 1 bilhão.

Então, o que é 1 bilhão de anos, para um Universo que tem pelo menos 15 bilhões?

Quando pensamos em civilizações... conseguimos pensar em 1 centena, duas talvez... os Romanos, tiveram uns 600 anos de civilização, os Egípcios, uns 3 mil? Já os Chineses, tem mais de 5 mil anos, então, vem a pergunta.

Será que a nossa civilização chega aos 10 mil anos?

Com o advento da comunicação global, a nossa civilização acelerou e em muito, a quantidade de patentes, novos produtos, novos projetos. A troca quase que instantânea de informações, fez com que o mundo pudesse ver ao vivo e a cores, a queda das 2 torres em NY. Puderam ver o início da guerra no golfo e até, o 1o ataque ao vivo em Bagdad.

A nossa civilização, quase se destruiu muitas vezes nos últimos 20 anos e devido a industrialização, estamos destruindo o meu ambiente e quem sabe, conseguiremos de fato, nos estinguir.

Pensar em 1 mil anos, conseguimos pensar, tivemos civilizações com mais que isso... 10 mil anos, até podemos, mas será que no mundo de hoje, conseguiremos sobreviver?

Como que seremos dentro de 1 milhão de anos?

O ser humano tem mudado muito, mas pelo que os cientistas tem visto, muito pouco mudou nos últimos 10 mil anos, ou seja, o gênero humano não evoluiu e será que o fará dentro de alguns milhares de anos?

A evolução é algo que muda a estrutura, focando a proteção e principalmente, com base na seleção natural das espécies.

Antigamente, digo, há milhares de anos, um filho defeituoso, era morto ou morria com o tempo, com isso, ele não teria o seu código genético defeituoso passado para frente, hoje, temos tantas doenças geneticamente transmissíveis, que nem damos bola. São muitos casos, como, inclusive, uma comum, que é a miopia de alto gráu. É certo, que na selva, como da África, os negros miópes, não sobreviveram muito tempo e principalmente nas tribos nômades também não, eles ficariam para trás.

E as raças?

O tempo tem passado, e as raças, antes isoladas, começaram a se misturar... aqui no Brasil, é muito comum, ver mais pessoas mistas, que somente as puras, como o Branco e o Negro... vemos mais os pardos, mulatos entre outras...

Imagino, que com o tempo, poderemos ter outras raças, porque o que aconteceu, sempre foi que o isolamento, fez com que o homem evoluir um pouco, para conseguir se adaptar melhor a natureza, mas como que será uma colônia em Marte ou alguma lua de Jupiter? Será que eles vão acabar evoluindo dentro de uns 500? 1000 anos?

Hoje, temos que juntar a equação, que temos a engenharia genética. Antes, com o negros, os homens ""brancos"", selecionavam sempre os melhores negros, e foram eles que estão hoje ai, por isso que os negros, são os melhores corredores, jogadores de basquete entre muitos outros esportes.

Imagino, que um mundo como Gátaca, será possível dentro de uns 50 anos? 100 anos? E que impacto que isso vai gerar na nossa civilização?

Um ser supremo

Imagine que os cientistas encontrem e manipulem gens específicos, para conseguir força, inteligência, efeitos curativos para machucados mais rápidos, em fim, um ser humano diferente, superior ao que hoje somos. Será que com isso, seremos obsoletos? Deixaremos de ser quem somos?

E algo como o mundo do Immortal, que eles manipulam e até vendem tratamentos genéticos, onde você escolhe o que deseja para o seu corpo...

Tudo isso, poderá nos extinguir, imagine que esse suposto ser supremo, na realidade é tão inferior, como hoje somos? A inveja, o ciume, o egoismo, poderá torna-lo um depóstata... e imagine então, uma nova raça de seres superiores... eles talvez, seriam os ditadores do mundo... e a atual raça humana, nada mais que seus escravos.

Vamos então para uma civilização de 1 bilhão de anos

Se conseguirmos chegar aos 10 mil, certamente, chegaremos ao ano 100 mil... porque? Porque já conseguiremos ultrapassar os limites do nosso sistema estelar, então, a Terra deixará de ter todos os ovos em um cesto e no caso de um grande acidente, a raça sobreviverá.

Mas 1 bilhão de anos? O que essa civilização fará? Será que teremos sentimentos? O Deus de hoje continuará existindo?

Na Ficção Científica, existem milhares de hipóteses, para a nova humanidade e civilizações futuras, que são, em alguns caos felizes e outros catastróficos.

No caso da série Perry-Rhodan, a Terra, é o berço da humanidade, que começou com experiências há mais de 200 mil anos... e hoje, estamos no ano de 3500 no novo calendário, muito além do nosso tempo e continuamos evoluindo.

Em outros, a Terra, depois de um cataclisma, deixou de ser o que era, com isso tudo mudou.

Em outros casos, as máquinas tomaram conta e o homem e a vida orgânica, não passa de um mito.

Em outros, a Terra se tornou um mito, para um império estelar de mais de 20 mil planetas e mais de 10 mil anos de existência.

O que será então?

Arthur C. Clarck, criou uma cidade eterna, onde eles vivem lá, a mais de 1 bilhão de anos, são pessoas que vivem mais de 800 anos, uma cidade que se auto regenera, ela em sí é um grande organismo e nós, parte dela...

Onde que eu quero chegar?

Penso que devemos sempre pensar no além e para nós, os meros mortais, quando 100 anos parece muito, 1 mil anos, parece uma eternidade, 1 milhão de anos, algo para só imaginar, mas 1 bilhão de anos... não tem o que se pensar.

Eu fico só imaginando o que poderiamos fazer se pudessemos ver o universo em 1 bilhão de anos, e que perguntas teriam sido respondidas, como: - Encontramos com Deus? - A vida, é algo divido? - A Via Láctea, se chocou mesm com Andromeda? - O SOL já explodiu? - A Luz, é o limite de tudo? - Existem outros universos e outras dimenções? - O Tempo é inexorável ou podemos dobra-lo e molda-lo? - Se a vida é divido, então, existe a alma?

Essas e tantas coisas que me fazem pensar que também, na minha pequenez, esqueço que no universo visível, temos bilhões de galáxias, isso mesmo, bilhões e bilhões de estrelas e quem sabe, também, bilhões de tipos diferentes de vida... e quem sou eu para pensar que poderei chegar lá?

A imaginação do homem, tem esse poder e é isso que eu gostaria de fazer você pensar... você, olhando o universo dentro de 1 bilhão de anos e ainda, parte da civilização humana que conseguiu crescer, evoluir e sobreviver a tantos problemas que certamente teremos pela frente.

About the author: Analista de Sistemas, especialista de projetos para Internet desde 1993, projetista e mantenedor de diversos sites no Brasil, como os sites da FAMEM, TVN e outros.

Monday, April 21, 2008

Humans and the Universe

Author: Victorino Q. Abrugar

There are nine well-recognized planets in our Solar System. The Sun, the center of our Solar System is just one star among hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way is also just one of hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe. If you will compute how many possible planets are there in the universe, it would be unbelievably enormous. Through this tremendous fact in our universe, scientists and astronomers believe that there may be huge probability of living creatures' existence aside from earthlings. This probability is as huge as the numbers of existing planets in the universe. Imagine a great number of islands in our planet, the higher the number of islands the greater the possibility of inhabitant discovery. Scientists believe on the existence of aliens, inhabitants of other planets. There would be also a possibility of existence of Earth-like planet in the universe. A simple theory is the existence of twins and identical people living in our planet. There may be a person in this world who is much like looks like you. There are only less than hundred of billions of humans in our planet against the possible hundred of septillions of planets in the universe. Are you now convinced of the existence of aliens and other living creatures in the universe?

Several claims on the sightings of aliens and UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) already become recurring news in radios, televisions and tabloids. But since my birth, I never saw clear pictures of aliens and alien ships. All of these are controversial, disputable and unidentifiable. If there are really aliens then where are they? Why there is no clear and undisputable claim of sightings of these creatures? There are other creatures on earth aside from animal, trees and humans. These creatures are merely spirits and elemental. Some of them existed to deceive the world. They have the power to mimic anyone just to deceive the world. They can imitate aliens and even your dead family members. They are the reasons of incorrect beliefs on Earth. And one of this is the conviction on Aliens.

Personally and principally, I believe that earthlings are the only living creatures in this universe. The discovered bacteria on the moon came from Earth. If there would be people in Mars, it would be humans migrated from Earth in seek of a new planet to live. God created forms of life only on Earth. He made no life forms on other planets. But if there are no lives on other planets, then why God created Universe and those billions of galaxies and billions of planets in those galaxies? A tough question isn't it? But you know this is just a matter of shelter. Humans need shelters or houses to live. These shelters need lands to be built. Lands need a planet to be placed. Our planet needs a solar system to revolve. Our solar system needs a galaxy to be positioned. And finally a galaxy needs universe to stay on. The principle behind is we are specially created by God. Humans are the center and the essence of His creation. We are His principal creation. The planets, stars, galaxies and even the universe are only created incidentally to support the Human creation. Those extremely huge and enormous objects are only matters and physical and far beyond compare to the significance of human souls.

About the author: Victorino Q. Abrugar is dedicated in spiritual philosophy. He is the author of TheOldMind.Com

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Fertilizer & Understanding It's Use

Author: Angel Estrella

Commonly used to promote growth in plants, fertlizer is applied to the soil after being obtained naturally or through a chemical process. Due to the fact that natural products are generally more healthy than those that are manufactured, natural fertilizer is often the best type to use. Fertilizer, alone, is designed to provide three major plant nutrients in various proportions. Humans need nutrition in order to grow and thrive as do plants and it is important to make sure that crops receive the proper care and nutrition during their growth process.

Chemical fertilizer may lead to surface runoff if over applied, which is easier to do than with natural products. This can often lead to problems with growing and may even be dangerous to wildlife. While it is also possible to over apply natural fertilizer, their release rates are generally much less than with chemical products.

Depending on the fertilizer, various storage requirements must be met. If purchased commercially, it is best to carefully study the ingredients and storage instructions on the fertilizer packaging. Knowledge of the nutrient content and requirements will help to maintain a healthy crop, usable fertilizer and less pollution to the garden.

Fertilizer is commonly used in gardening, but it also used for growing flowers and plants. Commercial fertilizer is available at most home improvement stores or in the gardening department at most retailers. Because plants and gardens are not abundant during the winter months, most fertilizer products are sold just before spring as planting becomes seasonal. If planting is done too early, a late frost may eliminate the crops and will ultimately be a waste of planting and fertilizer. When the weather is ideal for planting, typically in the early spring, fertilizer will be widely available in stores.

Various climates and geographical locations will provide for different crop planting seasons. Some areas may have success with gardening during most of the year while other parts of the world are restricted to mainly spring and summer months. Extreme cold and inclement weather will reek havoc on crops, which is why it is important to know the optimal growing season for each individual location.

When purchasing fertilizer, it is recommended that individuals thoroughly read the care and usage instructions. In addition, any caution and/or warning labels should be read carefully before proceeding with use. These products should be kept out of children's reach and may also prove harmful for animals.

About the author: For more information about fertilizer , click the link to visit our website at http://www.fertilizerreview.info . We have some great free articles and resources about fertilizer.

Saturday, April 19, 2008

Cubic Zirconia - What Is It?

Author: Liz Brodie

With the cost of diamonds soaring to record highs and the huge influence of 'bling' on today's fashion scene, Cubic Zirconia jewellery is seeing a huge rise in popularity. Cubic Zirconia is probably the closest man made material to the looks, hardness and feel of real diamond. But few people know what it is or how it's made so here's a brief summary for those interested...

Zirconium in its pure form is actually a chemical element that can be found in the periodic table. For those interested it has an Atomic Number of 40. However, although a naturally occurring element and metal, it is not found in its pure form and instead forms a part of several minerals, the most common being Zirconium Silicate which is mined heavily in the USA, Australia, India, Brazil and Russia.

Zirconium was discovered in 1789 by the German chemist Martin Klaproth, although he did not manage to isolate the element. This was achieved in 1824 by Jons Jakob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist, with pure Zirconium first prepared in 1914. Pure Zirconium is a greyish-white metal that is used in a wide range of industrial processes including heavy use by the Nuclear industry due to its hardness, heat resistance and non-reactive properties. These characteristics also help to make it ideal for jewellery.

Obviously a grey-white metal would hardly make an ideal substitute diamond so the raw material needs processing to produce the clarity required for jewellery. To do this high purity zirconium oxide powders, stabilized with magnesium and calcium, are heated to very high temperatures until they melt together, crystalising and clarifying on cooling to produce a clear, hard substance with properties similar to diamond and suitable for use in jewellery. During this process small amounts of other chemicals can also be added to produce different coloured crystals.

Although 'close' to real diamond, there are obviously small different between Cubic Zirconia and diamond including hardness and brilliance. The naked eye finds it hard to differentiate between the two, however true diamond does have an increased refractive index (the ability to refract a ray of light into its component colours). Cubic Zirconia (CZ) has a refractive index of around 2.16, whereas diamond has an index value of 2.42. As I say, although this is difficult to pickup with the naked eye it does mean that true diamond will always 'sparkle' just that little bit more when properly cut.

The hardness of the two materials is also different. As most people are aware, diamond is an incredibly hard material and often used for industrial cutting and grinding processes. In fact diamond tops the hardness scale with a value of 10 whereas CZ is a little lower at around 8.7.

Hardly exciting reading I know but the above at least gives a little insight in to where CZ comes from and why it remains so popular for Jewellery. At the end of the day it simply looks good and can be purchased without breaking the bank.

About the author: Liz Brodie owns and operates Silver Jewellery World, an online UK jewellery shop offering stunning designs at great prices including some great silver jewellery inset with quality Cubic Zirconia.

Friday, April 18, 2008

UFO's - Fact or Fiction?

Author: sacha Tarkovsky

n today's modern thought, one subject that is compelling and with no shortage of theories and mention is that of the UFO.

The question here is do they really exist, lets look at the subject in greater detail.

Although a well-known subject for literally thousands of years (indeed mentioned in the earliest known writings) continue to fascinate man

The S.E.T.I. project, countless private investigators, national (depending on the country) organizations devoted to researching the UFO and ET phenomena all give a certain credence to the existence of such objects and entities.

The physics of getting from point ""A"" which is even a few thousand light years away to point ""B"" has been considered even by the greats such as Einstein and Oppenheimer.

Interestingly enough, their theories and now mathematical substantiation would imply that space travel is possible, but indeed, not too practical. So, worm holes, time warps and other devices have been used to explain the possibility further.

The subject of countless films and books and needless to say, a whole industry, has sprung up, making the subject economically attractive.

The ancients however were quite used to the phenomena and knew exactly what it was, and perhaps, still is.

The ancient Indians were quite used to flying by non-mechanical methods on carpets, or machines. The Pushpa mentioned in the Sacred Writing of the Mahabharata (India's timeless epic) was used to fly all over India and other places.

Indeed, the Rama's journey back from Sri Lanka after a war was described in detail from the air, and no less than it seems about 5,000 meters!

The Arabian Nights, another classic and perhaps much more than just fables and stories, mentions non-mechanical flight on carpets and other objects.

Distances are transversed at the speed of light (thought), with entities that appear as people, but not just really.

Some are huge and terrifying, some are smaller and beautiful. These are the race of Jinn, or Geniis.

Evidence of UFO's

To apply today's UFO phenomena to some ETs from somewhere is easy enough, but also, the quotable phenomena of lights in the sky, abduction of people, livestock mutilation, crop circles, and objects appearing and disappearing from nowhere are mentioned time and again in stories of the Genii.

These are not new ideas either. In the stories of Solomon, he too moves about all over Arabia (how did he do that?), gains control over the Jinn (Geniis) by magical means, confines the really evil ones to small bottles stopped with his Seal (which today is wrongly called the Star of David). The work of the Geniis can be easily attributed to the phenomena of the UFO when looked at in that light.

These ""stories"" from the Bible, the Koran. Mahabharata, Avesta (ancient Zoroastrian - Persian Sacred Writings), Egyptian and Ancient Chinese texts, could be just ""so much smoke"". Logically however, where there is so much smoke, there had to be fire. Indeed there are so many stories, having been heard by, and in so many ages and tongues, that some of it must be true.

The Genii assume any shape and they need or wish to. They fly both visibly and invisibly. The abduct, have relations, heal and kill people. They are sometimes beneficial and sometimes very malicious, especially the ones of the air (called Ifrits) and appear to delight in confounding human beings. They can be religious (some were Jews, some were Muslims), or purposefully evil, and akin to demons.

All of these activities, when looked at in an objective way, could be attributed to the UFO and ET themes.

The Christian Church, over the Middle Ages, and all the way through to the Victorian age, had a great deal to do with suppressing this kind of knowledge. Today, we are free to go back and examine our pasts, and with it, perhaps, the Genii too are liberated once more to contribute, react, and continue to confound the human race.

About the author: or more FREE info

on UFO'S and other alternative subjects visit:

http://www.net-planet.org

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Mosquitoes like my blood

Author: Khalil A. Cassimally

Here in Mauritius, mosquitoes are in paradise. The male mosquitoes have all the fruits they'll ever dream of – god knows whether they actually dream – all year long while the female mosquitoes can choose from a numerous number of tourists to feed on.

It is of no surprise that tourists get bitten more than we, locals do. And the reaction which occurs on the tourists' skin is quiet unusual to me. A large red swelling develops. It is about twice the size that the one which would have formed on my skin if I was to get bitten. Apparently the bite that a tourist receives is also more irritant. In my opinion, this is because foreigners are not as used to get mosquito bites than Mauritians do. But one thing is for sire though: some people do get bitten more than others.

Why is this so? Or rather, why are some people bitten less? James Logan, a research student at the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) has found that some people give off 'masking' odours that prevent mosquitoes from detecting them. Another study, done earlier by Professor John Pickett and his team, showed that the number of flies circulating around a herd depended on certain cows being present. Professor Pickett and his team discovered that unattractive – to mosquitoes at least - individuals gave out different chemical signals from other cows. To be sure about this fact, the unattractive cows were removed and the number of flies bothering the herd did indeed increase. These 'ordinary' cows had not been camouflaged by the unattractive cows' special 'masking' odour and therefore the flies were attracted to the 'ordinary' cows.

After some other experiments, it was concluded that the famous 'masking' odours were acting as repellents or as a cover up. This finding could lead to a new type of insect repellent. These would be both safer and more effective.

Next time you get bitten, just think that the mosquitoes are not attracted by your 'sweet' blood but by your own odour.

About the author: Khalil A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. He is currently Senior Columnist at BackWash.com and Columnist for bbc.co.uk h2g2 The Post where he writes 'Not Scientific Science' column.

Wednesday, April 16, 2008

Polar Bears, Rulers of the Arctic North

Author: Clint Leung

The polar bears (Thalarctos maritimus) live in the Arctic regions of the north near open water where they can find their main source of food which are seals. These bears are huge with adults at 7 to 8 ½ feet tall and up to 1,600 pounds. Polar bears are white to creamy white all year round which gives them excellent camouflage against the Arctic snow when hunting. Along with the Arctic fox, the polar bear is the most northerly located land mammal on earth.

Unlike other species of bears, polar bears have longer necks and smaller heads making them appear more streamlined. Despite their large sizes, they are incredibly fast being able to run up to 25 miles per hour. At speeds like this, a polar bear can outrun a reindeer. They are also excellent swimmers being able to swim at about 3 miles per hour but for considerable distances.

During winters, they spend most of their time on the ice floes hunting seals. Polar bears have rough, leathery pads on the bottoms of their feet to maintain footholds on slippery ice surfaces. Their adaptation to the cold Arctic waters is even more impressive. Their thick coats of fur traps a deep layer of insulating air around their bodies. An inner layer of fur is so compact that it is almost impossible to wet it. An outer layer of long guard hairs mat together in the water which forms another layer over the inner layer. After a polar bear leaves the water, it simply shakes its body which results in most of the water being thrown right off leaving the bear almost dry. These protective layers of fur ensure that the polar bear's skin is kept dry most of the time, even while in the Arctic waters.

Polar bears hunt seals by waiting for seals to come through holes in the ice to breathe. They also stalk their prey utilizing their white camouflage abilities against the mounds of ice. Sometimes polar bears have been known to crawl on their bellies until they are close enough to rush their prey, particularly if no cover is available. Besides seals, polar bears will eat Arctic foxes, birds, baby walruses and even man if they are extremely hungry.

Males and females stay apart for most of the year except during the summer mating season. Females tend to breed only every other year and when they do, usually 1 to 4 cubs are born during March to April. The polar bear cubs stay with their mothers for 1 to 2 years. The life span of polar bears can be up to 34 years.

The Inuit hunt polar bears for their fat, tendons and fur. Scientists say that climate changes have been reducing the ice floes in the Arctic which has disrupted the polar bear's feeding grounds and migration patterns. There are estimates of about 22,000 to 25,000 polar bears left in the world with 60 percent of them in the Canadian Arctic region. Their populations are thought to be stable for now but some speculate that the species is at risk. Some think that if climate changes continue at its present rate and if worldwide hunting is not adequately controlled, polar bears could face extinction in about 100 years. There is presently much debate on adjusting annual hunting quotas of polar bears, even for Inuit hunters, to further help protect these great bears.

Polar bears have become the most popular symbol of the Arctic north with representations used in everything from soft drink commercials to corporate logos of northern based companies including Canadian North airlines. Nunavut even has their license plates cut in the shape of a polar bear. Tourists can see polar bears in the wild through unique tours on specially designed tundra buggies in Churchill, Manitoba Canada. It's also not surprising that polar bears are some of the most sought after Inuit art sculptures. Polar bears are definitely the rulers of the Arctic north.

About the author: Clint Leung is owner of Free Spirit Gallery (http://www.FreeSpiritGallery.ca) , an online gallery specializing in Inuit Eskimo and Northwest Native American art including carvings, sculpture and prints. Free Spirit Gallery has numerous information resource articles with photos of authentic Inuit and Native Indian art as well as free eCards.

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

DNAology!

Author: Khalil A. Cassimally

The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a unique molecule. It contains every single piece of genetic information of a person; just like the memory card of a PC, which contains all the data. The major difference between the DNA and the memory card of your PC though is that the microscopic DNA helix can store more data – actually about a thousand times more. So, scientists have got the bright idea of mimicking the DNA's data-storage secrets for use on your PC's memory card. This will lead to a more compact data processing and storage circuitry.

In the standard silicon-based chip (which is the basic unit of practically any electrical instruments) information processing is limited by the distance between the units which store and process data. With DNA scaffolding however, the interconnections can be made really short so as to increase the performance. And that's what the scientists have been working on.

The DNA scaffolding is made up of artificial DNA 'tiles' that automatically join together in a predetermined pattern. The so-formed molecular fabric has many strands. These DNA strands will clip to nanocomponents coated with the matching DNA strands. The nanocomponents could be metallic particles that can store or process data in form of an electric and magnetic state or they could simply be organic molecules.

"We can now assemble a DNA scaffolding on a pre-existing template, such as a computer chip and then assemble nanocomponents on top of the DNA," said Richard Kiehl, a professor of electrical engineering.

This technology would enable computers to identify objects in images in a blink of an eye. The speed at which the computer could find the objects would near the speed of the eye and brain doing the same thing!

Revolutions in genetics have only just begun and surprisingly we are finding ways to put the newly found data in practice – in a totally different way as first perceived, I might also add.

About the author: Khalil A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. He is currently Senior Columnist at BackWash.com and Columnist for bbc.co.uk h2g2 The Post where he writes 'Not Scientific Science' column.

Monday, April 14, 2008

Matrix and the NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) Theory

Author: Kedar Joshi (1979- )

The NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) theory is the most advanced, theoretically accurate, unificatory theory that is deeply related to the idea of the whole world to be a matrix. Through the NSTP theoretical perspective space (as a room or void out there) is a projection of non - spatial mind, which is the reality. Space is a mere form of illusion, a virtual reality. Thus the theory speaks of two worlds : 1. Spatial (the pseudo one) and 2. Non - spatial (the real one). The whole reality is thus a universal non - spatial program whose real elements (hardware) are non - spatial feelings while space is a kind of software that is projected or morphed onto the non - spatial hardware. And the best practical way, it seems, is to modulate the non - spatial program (say, through meditation) to change the spatial illusion (or even terminate it) in order to gain maximum pleasure.

Kedar Joshi BSc MA MRI Cambridge, UK.

About the author: Inventor of the NSTP ( Non - Spatial Thinking Process ) Theory

Sunday, April 13, 2008

Programmed life

Author: Khalil A. Cassimally

Does aging happen by chance? Is aging the breaking down of an organism till the latter eventually stops working?

According to Valter Longo's latest research, which was published in the September 27 edition of the Journal of Cell Biology, aging is a programmed process. For Longo's part, aging is supposed to ensure the premature death of the majority of a population.

The dead will then consequently provide nutrients for the sake of a few individuals who have acquired genetic mutations. (Think of yeast rather than big complex mammals.) These mutants are more adapted to their environment than the other 'normal' organisms. Therefore these 'sacrificial' deaths increase the chances of reproduction of the mutants as the latter will have more nutrients to feed on.

Now Charles Darwin may not be very happy with Longo's theory. Darwin's natural selection happens at individual level. The better suited to its environment an organism is, the more probable that it will reproduce. This ensures that the species changes or evolves over time as such type of reproduction brings genetic changes to the offsprings. This makes the offsprings more adapted to their ever-changing environment.

Longo's theory however rests on the group selection theory. Many scientists think that this theory is incorrect. The latter proposes that selection happens not at individual level but at group level instead.

Longo's research is mainly based on the observation of programmed aging in yeast. Scientists have used yeasts because the molecular pathway that regulates its longevity is similar to other more complex organisms like mice and possibly humans.

The results of this research are surprising. Yeasts, which were studied died well before they were supposed to in order to provide nutrients for those yeasts within that same population which have acquired genetic mutations. In short, many millions of yeasts died early to suit the few better-adapted mutant yeasts. Can this process happen in humans as well?

"If aging is programmed in yeast and the latter's molecular pathway is very similar to human's, then isn't it possible that humans also die earlier than they have to?" said Valter Longo.

Apart from the possibility that we might have been wrong in sticking with Darwin's all-too-known theory for so long-provided Longo's theory is proven to be correct- gerontologists (scientists studying the aging process) are now conjecturing that aging may actually be healed.

It seems easier to tweak the programming in a computer than to try to replace part after part in an old car that is steadily collapsing.

For Valter Longo, most organisms undergo programmed longevity. Is life therefore supposed to be programmed?

About the author: Khalil A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. He is currently Senior Columnist at BackWash.com and Columnist for bbc.co.uk h2g2 The Post where he writes 'Not Scientific Science' column.

Saturday, April 12, 2008

Velikovsky

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

Velikovsky:

""In 1953 while addressing graduate students at Princeton University, Velikovsky suggested two further testable phenomena: that the Earth's magnetic field reaches as far out into space as the Moon's orbit and is responsible for the vibratory or rocking movements of the moon. And he suggested that the planet Jupiter (from which he said the Venus-comet had originated) radiates in the radio frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

These predictions were taken by scientists of the 1950s as being tantamount to proof of Velikovsky's ignorance, insanity or both. {We will see him ripping Egyptology apart in the Ramessides issue and mentioning the older alphabet as well.} Harlow Shapley refused to become involved in any experimental research to confirm his ideas. When, for instance, it was suggested that Shapley might use the Harvard observatory to search for evidence of hydrocarbons in the Venusian atmosphere. Shapley replied that he wasn't interested in Velikovsky's 'sensational claims' because they violate the laws of mechanics and 'if Dr Velikovsky is right, the rest of us are crazy'.

Within little more than a decade of publication, 'all' of Velikovsky's key predictions were confirmed by experiment. The 'Mariner' spacecraft of 1963 determined by experiment that the surface temperature of Venus is in the region of 800 degrees Fahrenheit and that the planet's fifteen-mile thick atmosphere is composed of heavy hydrocarbon molecules and possibly more complex organic compounds as well. {My father told me as I was growing up the methane type atmosphere could be changed to an earth type atmosphere with the explosion of hydrogen bombs in the atmosphere of Venus.}

In April 1955, Drs. B. F. Burke and K. L. Franklin announced to the American Astronomical Society their accidental discovery of radio noise broadcast by Jupiter. In 1962, the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington and the Goldstone Tracking Station in southern California announced that radiometric observations showed Venus to have a slow retrograde motion. In the same year, the 'Explorer' satellite detected the Earth's magnetic field at a distance of at least twenty-two Earth radii, while in 1965 it was reported that the tail extends 'at least as far as the moon'. (3)

Considering that the main thrust of science's attack on Velikovsky was a personal attack on his integrity, the behavior of some of his most vociferous critics in the scientific community makes interesting reading. In August 1963, 'Harper's Magazine' which had carried the original announcement of Velikovsky's theories, now did a retrospective piece pointing out how all his main predictions had been borne out. The author of both articles, Eric Larrabee, made a reference which drew a thunderous response from Donald Menzel, director of Harvard College Observatory. At the height of the controversy a decade earlier, Menzel had tried to shoot Velikovsky down by calculating that for his astronomical theory to be right, the Sun would have to have a surface potential of 10 billion billion volts. Obviously, said Menzel, this is impossible so Velikovsky must be wrong. By an extraordinary chance, in 1960, V. A. Bailey, emeritus professor of physics at Sydney University (who knew nothing of the Velikovsky controversy) claimed to have discovered that the Sun is electrically charged and has a surface potential of 10 billion billion volts - exactly the value calculated by Menzel.

Feeling that Bailey's discovery made him look foolish, Menzel now sent off a strongly worded response to 'Harper's' and a letter to Bailey in Australia asking him to revoke his theory of the electric charge on the Sun as it was assisting the enemy.

According to Ralph Juergens:

Professor Bailey, taking exception to the idea that his own work should be abandoned to accomodate the anti-Velikovsky forces, prepared an article in rebuttal to Menzel's piece and submitted it to 'Harper's' for publication in the same issue with Menzel's. Bailey had discovered a simple arithmetical error in Menzel's calculations, which invalidated his argument.

It is equally interesting to see how the Harvard astronomer dealt with the fact that most of Velikovsky's predictions had been confirmed. On the radio emissions from Jupiter, he wrote that, since most scientists do not accept Velikovsky's theory then it follows that 'any seeming verification of Velikovsky's prediction is pure chance'. As far as the high surface temperature of Venus is concerned, Menzel argued that 'hot is only a relative term'. Later in the article he referred back to this statement saying 'I have already disposed of the question of the temperature of Venus'. Actually, in 1950, Menzel had estimated the temperature of Venus to be about 120 degrees Fahrenheit when it is really more like 800 degrees. On the extent of the Earth's magnetic field, Menzel wrote that Velikovsky 'said it would extend as far as the moon; actually the field suddenly breaks off at a distance of several earth diameters'. In fact, Menzel was wrong; the field had been detected as extending at least {Emphasis} twenty-two Earth radii a year earlier by the 'Explorer' satellite.

To their credit, a few scientists did support Velikovsky against the climate of hysteria and intimidation including Princeton's Professor H. H. Hess, who was later chairman of the National Academy of Science's space board. In 1962, Princeton physicist Valentin Bargmann and Columbia astronomer Lloyd Motz wrote a joint letter to the editor of 'Science' magazine calling attention to Velikovsky's priority in predicting Venus's high surface temperature, Jupiter's radio emissions and the great extent of the Earth's magnetosphere, but 'Science's' editor Dr Philip Abelson, was not interested in Velikovsky. Instead, he printed a letter from science fiction writer Paul Anderson satirising Velikovsky on the grounds that science fiction writers and hoaxers also made fantastic predictions that were sometimes verified. When the editor of 'Horizon' magazine wrote to Abelson protesting at the exclusion of an article by Velikovsky, Abelson replied:

'Velikovsky is a controversial figure. Many of the ideas that he expressed are not accepted by serious students of earth science. Since my prejudices happen to agree with this majority, I strained my sense of fair play to accept the letter by Bargmann and Motz, and thought that the books were nicely balanced with the rejoinder of Anderson.' (4)

'Scientific American' showed that it had not moved on editorially since it ridiculed the Wright Brothers fifty years earlier. The magazine had refused to carry advertising for 'Worlds in Collision' {Forwarded by Einstein I believe} and in 1956 it carried a strongly critical article by physicist Harrison Brown."" (5)

One of the reasons for this is the fact that Velikovsky's Egyptian chronologies directly refute Biblical history. In fact he destroys the whole time or calendrical premises of most history and shows how it is based on three pillars of ignorance. Errors accepted in one branch of academics are picked up by others and the whole fiasco is a 'house of cards' with propaganda in mind. When I found his book 'Peoples of the Sea' it was in the fiction section of my local library while the other stories and theories which have been proven false over and over again, are in the reference or science sections.

About the author: Author of Diverse Druids Columnist for The ES Press Magazine World-Mysteries.com guest writer

Friday, April 11, 2008

The Dream Dancer's Mask

Author: Robert Bruce Baird

THE DREAM DANCER'S MASK: To what extent the eleven or thirteen dimensions proposed by Quantum Physics contain elements of the future that would allow divination by those who do the ecstatic or drug aided dances like the Whirling Dervish is anyone's guess. I think there are many 'potential' futures and few who can interpret the constructs and confusion therein.

ARTIFACT DESCRIPTION: a) Weight – two and one half pounds b) Composition – zinc (Chemalloy?)

We need to have a thorough analysis of the composition that hopefully will provide clues as to when it was made. c) Symbology – There are marks behind or near the eye hole(s) that the face fits snuggly into. There are horns at the top and a handle at the bottom. The amorphous shapes on the face of the mask are intentionally made to be seen as different animistic demons or forms which is in line with Bes and the earlier origins of Bes the Egyptian representative deity. Bes and Loki are both tricksters and the horns might speak to Cernunnos or other horned gods that are of the same continuum due to the travels of the Kelts or Olmecs and their Brotherhood. Shamans seek to project visions to the ritual participants in their dances or performances. Often there were mind-altering drugs or ecstatic dances involved. The mutable nature of the face of this mask suggests any viewer might witness their own personal spirit guide or the demon and elemental of their belief system pantheon. d) Collateral artifacts – The large lipped Negroid features on some lithics that resemble the Guatemalan and La Venta artifacts are instructive and might indicate the mask comes from the same people who were in that part of the world. The Cherokee calendar and Mayan system are similarly instructive. The lions and giraffes or other non-indigenous American fauna would indicate these travelers were in North Africa. This could be the Figuig who came in 500 AD or any number of other migrations long before the likes of Juba and his Ptolemy family arrived once Rome was building an Empire they cared not to participate in. We feel it is likely that our artifacts are far earlier than Empire and we are eager to see the professional work done to establish dates that should be in line with the early dating of Poverty Point in 4000 BCE if not earlier. However we must rule out the Melungeons or pre-Columbians like those who might have left the Bat Creek artifacts. The Tennessee skeletons of pygmies might be connected if we find harmonics is the technology used in making the symbols that are almost microscopic.

The Iowa artifacts and caves of a fellow researcher have been dated to over 11,000 years ago. My book details a move south after smelting was being done in most Old World areas around 4000 BC. The rebounding of the land that still goes on as post-glacial re-adjustment caused the waters of the Great Lakes to flow in many new directions in the fourth millennium BC. One artifact in Iowa is a kaleidoscopic book of minute symbols that change as light hits it from different angles. We believe the same is true with many of our artifacts but more analysis is needed. There is a passage in Exodus that might relate. It is associated with what is called the Ten Commandments. It could relate to poured stone as Davidovits and linguists have shown Pliny describe. Even that would require man making the molds and molds are hard to make in curves such as one would expect a graven image of god to include. Here is the passage: Ex. 20:25 'And if thou wilt make Me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it.'

We covered how the ancients used spalling to get ores from rock in this book. Spalling would likely have lead to smelting due to different metals being present in the ores these people were after. We also know that certain very hard woods produce high heats and when fires are used in caves or cenotes open to prevailing winds it produces a bellows effect. Here is a little about one metal that when present in an ore reduces the melting point of gold to approximately half of its normal melting point of 1064 degrees Celsius. "There is a 22 ct yellow gold solder with a very low melting point. {We know that Greek gold used cadmium to affect the lower melting point.} This has the composition 92.5 % gold - 6.0% germanium -1.5% silicon and is based on the ternary eutectic system. The soldering temperature is 425-450°C and although the joints are initially whitish in colour they can be heat treated for 2 hours at 285°C to give a good colour match to yellow gold." (13) REQUIRED ANALYSIS: 1. How were the artifacts made? How were the symbols of minute and microscopic nature put on and into the artifacts? One smoothed rock has three glyphs or symbols including one that might be a Mayan or Olmec numerical operator that is a half moon and three dots. POSSIBILITIES: a) Harmonic drills b) Diamond drills (seems unlikely due to the small size) c) Shamanic attunement causing lattices of matter to reflect specific designs akin to what one might see in Crop Circle formation. 2. Is there a development of technology over time which is demonstrated? a) Is this technology mirrored in Iowa and which one is earliest? b) What other regions of the world might have similar artifacts or designs including the Cretan bull we see. Will there be knowledge on the Luwian script found at 2200 feet below the Gulf of Mexico to tie these things together with the Carolina Bays event in 8350 BCE? 3. What was the purpose of the artisans or shamans? Is the Orisha or Yoruba possession by demons a real thing or is it a sorcerer and his psychic possession that is involved? How many witnesses to a ritual are affected and can one shaman possess many people simultaneously? a) My personal experiences with exorcisms and possessions as well as the work of Robert Bruce and others who might be asked to attune to the artifacts in ritual. b) Could the minute symbols include information that can be tapped through harmonics? ACTION PLAN: 1. Contact and begin the process of informing experts in anthropology, archaeology, chemistry (bonding and lattices or Materials Scientists like Robins and Tiller) psychology and physics about the possibilities these artifacts may portend. 2. Select one institution or expert to make an appraisal of the work done in my book that addresses the 'who' and 'when' in general terms. Maybe this person or institution will eventually seek to be the dig team managers and owners of the site. Could mining companies and investment firms be interested if the government funded institutions find it 'too political'? 3. Try to get a ball park on the date of the electrum for purposes of focusing our efforts. 4. Get the archaeological ball park on the lithics if possible. If we are dealing with huge time frames due to the electrum being smelted (uncertain at present) then we will have a lot more research to do on the 'who' or what culture(s) were involved. 5. Consider auction houses and the media at junctures which might move the process along.

INITIAL RESPONSES AND BACKLASH: When I called Kathryn Denning of York University I was surprised to find such an open minded person in academia at an institution. Ryerson University has no real anthropology or archaeological interests and the Professor of Chemistry named Derek Heyd was most willing to test the artifact to determine if it was alloyed and what constituent ingredients were in it. This would have been all I needed to get the ball rolling.

Once I called The Canadian Museum of Civilization all sources suddenly seemed numb and were unwilling to talk to me. It is a sad state of affairs indeed and I wonder if there is anything I can do going forward.

The artifact my partner sent me was professionally tested on an electron microscope and this is my brief initial report to him. Zinc is found in ores with copper and silver and yet requires concentrates to make into something such as we have. It would mean a very advanced smelting knowledge and this makes the dating of the area and artifacts of even greater importance. I really can only guess as to the full meaning of this metal showing up in ancient times. It melts at low temperatures and would have been one of the first things to melt in the spalling process and aluminum melts or forms at a lower temperature when zinc is alloyed with it. The melting point of zinc is 419.58 degrees Celsius (787.15 F) whereas copper melts at 1083 Celsius and aluminum at 1220 Fahrenheit.

'I have an analysis of the artifact now - is this the one you tested and thought was electrum? It is weirder by far than electrum. The dating now becomes critical - thus the bone may need to be scanned. I cannot afford to do that anyway.

It is mostly zinc. There is aluminum in it. These are recent things historically although zinc was used medicinally in history as commonly stated back 2500 years in ornaments. Zinc is weird but aluminum even more - and not likely to have been found as a result of intention in this - but just an alloy that came up by mistake or chance.' It is also possible that a 19th Century fakir or fraud was having some fun with aluminum slag from your nearby mills.'

About the author: World-Mysteries.com guest expert Seeking people who wish to get these artifacts brought to light in order to tell the truth of The Brotherhood that was invaded and destroyed with the use of bioweapons.

Thursday, April 10, 2008

The Holy Grail of Science

Author: Paras Chopra

Imagine playing football at the age of 239 with your grand-grand-grand children. Imagine donating blood at the age of 172. Imagine traveling into an inter-galactic spaceship to the andromeda galaxy. Imagine not getting common cold at all. And imagine not having to see those AIDS awareness ads because AIDS being a history, taught in Medieval History-101. And imagine living to see Indian football team qualify for FIFA world cup. No, you are not being taken to utopia; instead, I'm trying to propel your minds towards the future, which is nearer than ever before.

The fear of death is the most common of the all phobias we know. No one wants to die. To imagine death is the worst punishment one can ever give. History has seen many heroes abandoning their quests just because they feared death. People may spend their fortune on treatments without guarantees of 100% recoveries. Now the question arises, if death is so dreadful then why it is so common?

Death rides following reasons:

* Hunger: This factor is a major cause of deaths in poorer nations. There are many organizations working to free the food distribution process from bureaucracy but a lot of work still needs to be done.

* Accidents: These are mainly caused to negligence and carelessness. In this high-tech convergent world everyone is busy with his personal bunch of gizmos, unaware of the precautionary measures. This carelessness isn't safe. In nutshell, people are just too busy.

* Wars: This is the most shameful aspect of human species. Wars can be avoided and with them million of deaths. Only some social engineering is needed. Governments spend most of their GDP on defense research. This money can be put into more useful bio-researches leading to fewer diseases and lower mortality rate.

* Natural disasters: The inevitable factor. At present we can only predict but can not prevent natural disasters. We are left at mercy of our so called Mother Earth unless we colonize other planets.

* Ageing: Evolution made the humans mortal. Our bodies are just here to reproduce and nurture our kids to a level where they can reproduce. Then, biologically, our bodies become worthless – Telomeres have to shed its size. They are not required by the evolutionary process anymore, so we die.

* Diseases: Survival of the fittest. Charles Darwin gave the world this famous theory. It implied that we survive to be fit. And if we're diseased we cannot be fit. When those tiny pathogenic agents attack our body we fall sick. This is because they are genetically fitter than, us, the mighty humans. Our bodies were not made to fight these agents and we fall prey to their attack. There are two ways to attack the disease. Either change our bodies (genome) to be able to fight or hinder the functioning of the agents or eliminate them. Either way it is difficult so, presently, we are left with our sickening genome which we are unable to edit. Its mutation is left to evolution alone.

Well accidents can be prevented if awareness about their prevention is spread. This is the area where mass media has to play its role. And Wars can be prevented by peace movements and social engineering. And as far as natural disasters are concerned we can only plead to engineers to make structures safer. It is their duty to make structures capable of coping with the natural disasters suffering minimum damage to lives. But, it is the last two factors namely ageing and diseases, which are being described as The Holy Grail of Science.

As we all know, our bodies are governed by genes which control just about everything about our body. Be it our physical appearance or resistance to diseases or intelligence (much debated) or inner functioning, every damn thing is controlled by our genes. It is said that if we can control genes we can control the course of evolution. It is like riding the car of evolution, the human species being driver, passenger being earth and genes as its steering wheel.

It has been scientifically proven that every cell in our body has a type of biological clock called telomere. This clock tells the cell when to stop dividing. If a cell is unable to reproduce then new cells are not born, hence our body dies. This is called ageing. The scientists today are trying to edit the genes thus instructing cells to make longer telomere or altogether abandon the concept of telomere which can result in indefinite life span. If scientists are ever able to achieve this then it could bring a revolution. Then we'll be able to keep body deteriorating effects of age at a bay and enjoy the full energetic life of youth at the age of 100. But even then, job would be half done.

The next front of the battle would be 'Diseases'. Even if we're able to live up to 100 or more then what will keep our body protected from all those silly disease causing agents? The current method of medication will become useless very soon as more and more virus, bacteria, etc. are developing immunity against our body mechanism and the medicines. The fact that these agents mutate very rapidly makes them survive longer and longer. But the humans have not changed at all. We are not able to mutate/change naturally as rapidly as these agents. So, it proves to be a disadvantage to us.

One way to get over this issue is to change our genes artificially. As a positive note the complete human genome has been mapped and now it is the duty of the genetic engineers to make use of it and find a way to develop a fool-proof mechanism against these agents. Once we do this we can have very own personalized medicines or would be requiring no medicines at all. The personalized medicines will work in coordination with our immunity system. It would change the immunity system to make it capable of immunizing us to all new pathogens which our body does not know of. Then slowly, according to survival of the fittest, all the pathogens will be wiped out of existence.

The infinite life span raises many ethical questions. Also, genetic engineering has raised moral/ethical issues world wide. But it is for socialists and politicians to sort out these issues. Scientists only know one way, which is the future. No matter how hard these politicians try to prevent them from achieving this but one day or the other they will achieve this. And then we will live indefinitely and who knows this breakthrough might happen within our lifetime. And after that, we see Indian soccer team win FIFA world cup in 2147 AD.

About the author: Paras Chopra was born in Patiala, Punjab, India on 3rd June 1987. His interests lie in subjects ranging from Nanotechnology to Biotechnology to Artificial Intelligence. His goal in life is to achieve immortality.

Visit him at: www.paraschopra.com

Wednesday, April 09, 2008

Probability - Fact or Fiction

Author: Johnny Fuctup

Probability – Fact or Fiction

So what is the chance that a coin will land heads when flipped? Scientists say there is a 50% chance. Is this necessarily so though?

From reading my other articles it should be clear that one theory of our universe that I'm particularly interested in is consensus reality. A universe created by our collective consciousness that fits within the confines of our collective belief systems.

I often feel that science is not so much determining existing laws of the universe as is commonly thought, but in some respects creating the laws itself through self-reinforcement in the conscious minds that continually maintain the structure and behaviour of this planet.

When you toss a coin, your subconscious beliefs dictate that, if you toss it enough, it will come up tails eventually. The concept of probability, chance and chaos are so well rooted in everyone's minds that it is impossible to convince yourself that you have the power to make that coin show heads each and every time.

If you do the experiment yourself, say tossing a coin 1000 times trying to will the coin to be heads, and logging the results as you go, you may notice after the first 50 tosses that there has been a rather large bias towards the coin coming up heads, for e.g

Heads Tails 31 19

Odd? Not really, mathematicians and statisticians will tell you that if you continue tossing the coin, and more data is amassed, that the tosses will average out more.

That is entirely possible, and if we are to believe that the physical world follows the laws of probability as rigidly as they say, probable.

But... this experiment has been insurmountably tainted by the preconceptions of the person carrying out the experiment. If that person, with 100% complete faith that that coin WOULD land heads every single time, actually had the power to make that happen, there is no way they would EVER find that power out, because 100% faith is impossible with the conditioning of randomness and probability concepts since the day they were born. The most faith you can realistically ever have that it will land heads is... well, 50% really.

If you managed to convince yourself 100% that you had the power to influence the coin toss, and then tossed the coin and it came up heads, what are the "chances" that it will come up heads on the second toss? 50% still. It's counter intuitive, as you would assume that there is less chance of it coming up heads again if it already has done, but probability states that the second time (or any other time) you toss that coin, it still has 50% chance of being heads.

Despite this, when tossing the coin a second time, you would be aware that you had just got a heads, and this niggling doubt would mean that you were no longer 100% convinced that you could make the coin come up heads again. You toss it again... Heads! Unbelievable...

That's two heads in a row, maybe there's something to this?

Time to toss again. You are still willing it to be heads, but you can feel your conviction and faith waning this time...

Heads again! Three in a row! That's 12.5% chance given traditional views of probability. About 1/10, pretty lucky I guess, but not exceptionally improbable...

Next toss. Four heads in a row would be pretty unlikely, 6.25% chance, taking into account the irrefutable laws of probability. Your confidence in this coin toss is not high at all... This time, it must be tails!

You toss again... Doh! Tails... told you! It's just random.

But what if no-one had ever told you about probability? What if at schools, pupils were taught that nothing was random, but was merely configured by the consensus of conscious minds observing it, based upon their beliefs on the outcome?

Would those children, upon reaching adulthood, be able to toss a coin 1000 times and it come up heads every single time?

Maybe, maybe not. But my point is that seemingly provable scientific experiments may have their results contaminated by the belief of the persons doing the experimentation.

If scientists believe that they are unable to influence probability, then the results they will glean will support this belief, whether that is because they are right, or because they are wrong but believe they are right.

Imagine if everybody in the country put the same numbers on the lottery, and watched the draw convinced "I'm going to win this week I can feel it!"

Would the chances of those numbers coming out still be millions to one?

Maybe, maybe not.

But then again, scientists will freely accept that quantum particles can be influenced merely by our observations and expectations. So why not visible matter constructed of these quantum particles? Because its easier for them to accept strange goings-on with an invisible sub-atomic particle than it is with something they can see, feel, taste, and touch like a coin or a dice. If they don't see anything that supports this belief, they will not believe it. But if belief is what makes it happen, then they are never going to see it in experimentation.

If belief is the key to defining our reality, then while we retain a steadfast and narrow belief system, be that religion, science, or a combination of the two, then we are severely narrowing the possibilities open to us in this reality. We need to reset our brains back to zero. View everything from "provable" and "observable" science to religious or spiritual philosophies as a child would, from a neutral place where you can freely explore them as possibilities, but be in a place where you can also explore the other conflicting areas of possibility without contaminating them, or rendering them invisible, with your own preconceptions.

If you get in to a reality too deeply, you will believe in that reality to the point where you will automatically dismiss any other reality presented to you... this is dangerous, especially when you consider that the reality you are part of may have been devised with a malevolent intent.

About the author: http://www.johnnyfuctup.com

Johnny Fuctup looks at everything from a neutral point. Breaking down rigid belief systems and being open to many alternative possibilities of reality is paramount to understanding the universe we live in, and also to assuring that we are not being maniuplated into buying into a bogus belief system, be that religions or sciences.

Mail him on info@johnnyfuctup.com with any comments on this article.

Tuesday, April 08, 2008

Living Authentically in a Masked World

Author: Delores Williams

Humanity seems to be the only species that never seems pleased with its own. People tend to spend the majority of their life living up to an illusion that no one has ever been able to attain. It is the illusion of perfection. The problem is, that is a course that is marked with failure and pain. Someone came up with the concept that people should be wafting through the fields picking lilies and singing songs of the angels. If you stay on this course you will never measure up. You were not meant to.

There are too many people walking around under condemnation by this illusion. They feel they have failed at the game of life. It is not true. You have not failed. You cannot fail at something that is unattainable. Instead, you should be pleased that you got as far as you did. There are many that check out of this life because they refuse to fail at anything. Lets talk about how you can live authentically with the life you have.

One, you must make the decision to live in the moment. We have too many who are living in the past, with its mistakes, or in the future, with its uncertainties. In order for you to be authentic, you are going to have to take the proverbial bull by the horn and live in the here and now. We all know that we cannot change the past, yet many of us have set up camp there in hopes that we can make sense of it. Then there is the other group that is off to a time that hasn't happened yet. Neither group is useful. Life is happening now.

So, how do you live now? Start by taking off the mask. Admit that life hasn't been what you expected and then forgive yourself and God. Yourself, for chasing an illusion, and God, for blaming Him when it didn't happen as you expected.

Second, Be honest with yourself. Honesty is a lost commodity in the era we live in. People love to lie. The only problem is that you take your lies internally and they judge you. You might say, "I don't lie." Let's take a short quiz.

1. Do you make promises to yourself that you don't keep? (I'm going on a diet.) 2. Do you make promises to others that you don't keep? (I'll be on time.) 3. Do you tell others what they want to hear instead of what they need to hear out of fear of repercussions? 4. If you asked your closest friend if you were an honest person how would they answer?

We lie without thinking about it because that is what we are conditioned to do. We soften them by calling them little white lies. A lie is a lie. Of course, there are the other extremists who lack tact in their honesty. They try to belittle people. Both sides are not good. As you start living authentic you must make honesty your priority. Why? How can you be honest with someone else if you are not honest with yourself? Further, you project it onto other people. By projection, I mean that you put the burden on another person to be what you cannot be. You will find fault with the person who is just a mirror of yourself. Since you do not have the compassion to love the shadow of yourself, you will not have compassion on the other person. Let me give you an example, I have a friend that is a procrastinator to a fault. It used to aggravate me until I saw I was the same way. When I dealt with that aspect in myself her procrastination no longer bothered me.

Jung says, "Man turns a blind eye to the shadow-side of human nature. Blindly he strives against the salutary dogma of original sin, which is yet so prodigiously true. Yes, he even hesitates to admit the conflict of which he is so painfully aware."

Third, is what I call the peel and reveal method. You have to go down into the depth of your soul and find the parts of you that you thought were not good enough to exist. This is intense, but the only way I know of to let you know that the world is waiting for the person you were originally created to be. That person has something to offer humanity, not the person that you pretend to be.

Many of you are so miserable that you go home and cry through the night. You are holding on by a thread because you don't know if you can keep this illusion going for much longer. I promise you if you will do the work it will be worth it. I have been where you are, so I know from whence I speak.

How do you peal and reveal? I recommend you get a journal that is for your eyes-only. Write down the five things that you hate about yourself. For example, angry, hostile, pessimistic, etc. Then write down what is good about those aspects. This will take some searching, but I promise you there is a hidden gift. Part of it is just the idea of admitting that you hate something about yourself. When you get rid of the secret you get rid of its hold on you. What is hidden will ultimately be revealed, so why not reveal it on your terms. There is a saying, What you don't own will own you. We all have heard of the guy who is real sweet but sometimes beats up his wife. This is what hiding anger does. It comes out explosively and towards someone else.

Some people recommend that you ask your friends and family to help you with this project. I do not advocate this for most people because some people have lived their lives based on what others will think or have thought of them. It is time for you to come face to face with you. Besides, in the end it really only matters what you think of you. Others can project, but you must accept it. So peal back the mask and see yourself for who you really are.

Fourth, forgiveness is an essential part of living authentically. You have to forgive yourself for lying. This is tough to do especially when you know some do not deserve our forgiveness. The strange thing about forgiveness is that it is not for the other party, but for you. I like to live by the premise of keeping short accounts. What offense is worth your peace? The biggest revelation to me was that there was very little that I was willing to lose my peace for. I want to be better not bitter. Make that your goal as well. Bitterness is a cancer that needs to be cut out or it will destroy you.

Forgiveness does not mean that you have to let the individual have the same relationship with you as before the offense. It does mean that you will not hold it against them. Over time some will earn the privilege of being a friend again, but trust must be earned. For example, If a dog bites you, you may forgive it, but that doesn't mean you want it around.

Finally, authentic living requires letting go. You must let go of the illusions, the past, the lies, and the audacity. The audacity to believe that there is something wrong with everyone, but you. All of it has to go. Deep down you know the truth. You are afraid that somehow you will give away your secret or worse, that someone else will expose you. What is the secret? You are a fraud. You are pretending to be something you are not and denying who you are.

Authentic living is tough. It requires you to go into yourself and pull out the junk, so you can find the precious stone. It is not for the weak or those who are looking for a quick fix. Authentic living is a lifestyle and it takes time to develop.

So don't be afraid of failing or missing it, because the only time you fail is when you have the information yet choose to remain the same.

About the author: : Delores Williams is a freelance writer living in Oklahoma City. Her writing is taken from different aspects of her life, or those close to her. She can be reached at delwilliams@gmail.com