Sunday, December 31, 2006

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Professor Armstrong

Author: Professor Armstrong

Prof. Armstrong was asked a number of questions about Qur'ânic verses dealing with his field of specialisation. He was eventually asked, ""You have seen and discovered for yourself the true nature of modern Astronomy by means of modern equipment, rockets, and satellites developed by man. You have also seen how the same facts were mentioned by the Qur'an fourteen centuries ago. So what is your opinion?""

""That is a difficult question which I have been thinking about since our discussion here. I am impressed at how remarkably some of the ancient writings seem to correspond to modern and recent Astronomy. I am not a sufficient scholar of human history to project myself completely and reliably into the circumstances that 1400 years ago would have prevailed.

Certainly, I would like to leave it at that, that what we have seen is remarkable, it may or may not admit of scientific explanation, there may well have to be something beyond what we understand as ordinary human experience to account for the writings that we have seen.""

""I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in Qur'ân, and for us modern astronomers have been studying very small piece of the universe. We have concentrated our efforts for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the whole universe. So by reading Qur'ân and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.""

About the author: Professor Armstrong works for NASA and is also Professor of Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-William Hay

Author: William Hay

Professor Hay is one of the best known marine scientists in the USA. Sheikh cAbdul-Majeed A. Zindanî met with him and asked him many questions about the marine surface, the divider between upper and lower sea, and about the ocean floor and marine geology.

""I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scriptures of the Holy Qur'ân, and I have no way of knowing where they would have come from. But I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages.""

And when he was asked about the source of the Qur'ân, he replied, ""Well, I would think it must be the divine being.""

""That is a difficult question which I have been thinking about since our discussion here. I am impressed at how remarkably some of the ancient writings seem to correspond to modern and recent Astronomy. I am not a sufficient scholar of human history to project myself completely and reliably into the circumstances that 1400 years ago would have prevailed.

Certainly, I would like to leave it at that, that what we have seen is remarkable, it may or may not admit of scientific explanation, there may well have to be something beyond what we understand as ordinary human experience to account for the writings that we have seen.""

""I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in Qur'ân, and for us modern astronomers have been studying very small piece of the universe. We have concentrated our efforts for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the whole universe. So by reading Qur'ân and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.""

About the author: Professor of Oceanogprahy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Saturday, December 30, 2006

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Tejatat Tejasen

Author: Tejatat Tejasen

Professor Tejasen studied various articles concerning the Qur'ân and modern embryology. He spent four days with several scholars, Muslims and non-Muslims, discussing this phenomenon in the Qur'ân and Hadîth. During the 8th Saudi Medical Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia he stood up and said:

""In the last three years, I became interested in the Qur'ân... From my studies and what I have learned throughout this conference, I believe that everything that has been recorded in the Qur'ân fourteen hundred years ago must be the truth, that can be proved by the scientific means.

Since the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write, Muhammad must be a messenger who relayed this truth which was revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is eligible creator. This creator must be God, or Allah.

I think this is the time to say La ilaha illa Allah, there is no god to worship except Allah (God), Muhammad rasoolu Allah, Muhammad is Messenger of Allah...

The most precious thing I have gained from coming to this conference is La ilaha illa Allah, and to have become Muslim.""

About the author: Chairman of the Department of Anatomy and is the former Dean of the faculty of Medicine, University of Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Eugenics and the Future of the Human Species

Author: Sam Vaknin

""It is clear that modern medicine has created a serious dilemma ... In the past, there were many children who never survived - they succumbed to various diseases ... But in a sense modern medicine has put natural selection out of commission. Something that has helped one individual over a serious illness can in the long run contribute to weakening the resistance of the whole human race to certain diseases. If we pay absolutely no attention to what is called hereditary hygiene, we could find ourselves facing a degeneration of the human race. Mankind's hereditary potential for resisting serious disease will be weakened.""

Jostein Gaarder in ""Sophie's World"", a bestselling philosophy textbook for adolescents published in Oslo, Norway, in 1991 and, afterwards, throughout the world, having been translated to dozens of languages.

The Nazis regarded the murder of the feeble-minded and the mentally insane - intended to purify the race and maintain hereditary hygiene - as a form of euthanasia. German doctors were enthusiastic proponents of an eugenics movements rooted in 19th century social Darwinism. Luke Gormally writes, in his essay ""Walton, Davies, and Boyd"" (published in ""Euthanasia Examined - Ethical, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives"", ed. John Keown, Cambridge University Press, 1995):

""When the jurist Karl Binding and the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche published their tract The Permission to Destroy Life that is Not Worth Living in 1920 ... their motive was to rid society of the 'human ballast and enormous economic burden' of care for the mentally ill, the handicapped, retarded and deformed children, and the incurably ill. But the reason they invoked to justify the killing of human beings who fell into these categories was that the lives of such human beings were 'not worth living', were 'devoid of value'""

It is this association with the hideous Nazi regime that gave eugenics - a term coined by a relative of Charles Darwin, Sir Francis Galton, in 1883 - its bad name. Richard Lynn, of the University of Ulster of North Ireland, thinks that this recoil resulted in ""Dysgenics - the genetic deterioration of modern (human) population"", as the title of his controversial tome puts it.

The crux of the argument for eugenics is that a host of technological, cultural, and social developments conspired to give rise to negative selection of the weakest, least intelligent, sickest, the habitually criminal, the sexually deviant, the mentally-ill, and the least adapted.

Contraception is more widely used by the affluent and the well-educated than by the destitute and dull. Birth control as practiced in places like China distorted both the sex distribution in the cities - and increased the weight of the rural population (rural couples in China are allowed to have two children rather than the urban one).

Modern medicine and the welfare state collaborate in sustaining alive individuals - mainly the mentally retarded, the mentally ill, the sick, and the genetically defective - who would otherwise have been culled by natural selection to the betterment of the entire species.

Eugenics may be based on a literal understanding of Darwin's metaphor.

The 2002 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica has this to say:

""Darwin's description of the process of natural selection as the survival of the fittest in the struggle for life is a metaphor. 'Struggle' does not necessarily mean contention, strife, or combat; 'survival' does not mean that ravages of death are needed to make the selection effective; and 'fittest' is virtually never a single optimal genotype but rather an array of genotypes that collectively enhance population survival rather than extinction. All these considerations are most apposite to consideration of natural selection in humans. Decreasing infant and childhood mortality rates do not necessarily mean that natural selection in the human species no longer operates. Theoretically, natural selection could be very effective if all the children born reached maturity. Two conditions are needed to make this theoretical possibility realized: first, variation in the number of children per family and, second, variation correlated with the genetic properties of the parents. Neither of these conditions is farfetched.""

The eugenics debate is only the visible extremity of the Man vs. Nature conundrum. Have we truly conquered nature and extracted ourselves from its determinism? Have we graduated from natural to cultural evolution, from natural to artificial selection, and from genes to memes?

Does the evolutionary process culminate in a being that transcends its genetic baggage, that programs and charts its future, and that allows its weakest and sickest to survive? Supplanting the imperative of the survival of the fittest with a culturally-sensitive principle may be the hallmark of a successful evolution, rather than the beginning of an inexorable decline.

The eugenics movement turns this argument on its head. They accept the premise that the contribution of natural selection to the makeup of future human generations is glacial and negligible. But they reject the conclusion that, having ridden ourselves of its tyranny, we can now let the weak and sick among us survive and multiply. Rather, they propose to replace natural selection with eugenics.

But who, by which authority, and according to what guidelines will administer this man-made culling and decide who is to live and who is to die, who is to breed and who may not? Why select by intelligence and not by courtesy or altruism or church-going - or al of them together? It is here that eugenics fails miserably. Should the criterion be physical, like in ancient Sparta? Should it be mental? Should IQ determine one's fate - or social status or wealth? Different answers yield disparate eugenic programs and target dissimilar groups in the population.

Aren't eugenic criteria liable to be unduly influenced by fashion and cultural bias? Can we agree on a universal eugenic agenda in a world as ethnically and culturally diverse as ours? If we do get it wrong - and the chances are overwhelming - will we not damage our gene pool irreparably and, with it, the future of our species?

And even if many will avoid a slippery slope leading from eugenics to active extermination of ""inferior"" groups in the general population - can we guarantee that everyone will? How to prevent eugenics from being appropriated by an intrusive, authoritarian, or even murderous state?

Modern eugenicists distance themselves from the crude methods adopted at the beginning of the last century by 29 countries, including Germany, The United States, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, Venezuela, Estonia, Argentina, Norway, Denmark, Sweden (until 1976), Brazil, Italy, Greece, and Spain.

They talk about free contraceptives for low-IQ women, vasectomies or tubal ligations for criminals, sperm banks with contributions from high achievers, and incentives for college students to procreate. Modern genetic engineering and biotechnology are readily applicable to eugenic projects. Cloning can serve to preserve the genes of the fittest. Embryo selection and prenatal diagnosis of genetically diseased embryos can reduce the number of the unfit.

But even these innocuous variants of eugenics fly in the face of liberalism. Inequality, claim the proponents of hereditary amelioration, is genetic, not environmental. All men are created unequal and as much subject to the natural laws of heredity as are cows and bees. Inferior people give birth to inferior offspring and, thus, propagate their inferiority.

Even if this were true - which is at best debatable - the question is whether the inferior specimen of our species possess the inalienable right to reproduce? If society is to bear the costs of over-population - social welfare, medical care, daycare centers - then society has the right to regulate procreation. But does it have the right to act discriminately in doing so?

Another dilemma is whether we have the moral right - let alone the necessary knowledge - to interfere with natural as well as social and demographic trends. Eugenicists counter that contraception and indiscriminate medicine already do just that. Yet, studies show that the more affluent and educated a population becomes - the less fecund it is. Birth rates throughout the world have dropped dramatically already.

Instead of culling the great unwashed and the unworthy - wouldn't it be a better idea to educate them (or their off-spring) and provide them with economic opportunities (euthenics rather than eugenics)? Human populations seem to self-regulate. A gentle and persistent nudge in the right direction - of increased affluence and better schooling - might achieve more than a hundred eugenic programs, voluntary or compulsory.

That eugenics presents itself not merely as a biological-social agenda, but as a panacea, ought to arouse suspicion. The typical eugenics text reads more like a catechism than a reasoned argument. Previous all-encompassing and omnicompetent plans tended to end traumatically - especially when they contrasted a human elite with a dispensable underclass of persons.

Above all, eugenics is about human hubris. To presume to know better than the lottery of life is haughty. Modern medicine largely obviates the need for eugenics in that it allows even genetically defective people to lead pretty normal lives. Of course, Man himself - being part of Nature - may be regarded as nothing more than an agent of natural selection. Still, many of the arguments advanced in favor of eugenics can be turned against it with embarrassing ease.

Consider sick children. True, they are a burden to society and a probable menace to the gene pool of the species. But they also inhibit further reproduction in their family by consuming the financial and mental resources of the parents. Their genes - however flawed - contribute to genetic diversity. Even a badly mutated phenotype sometimes yields precious scientific knowledge and an interesting genotype.

The implicit Weltbild of eugenics is static - but the real world is dynamic. There is no such thing as a ""correct"" genetic makeup towards which we must all strive. A combination of genes may be perfectly adaptable to one environment - but woefully inadequate in another. It is therefore prudent to encourage genetic diversity or polymorphism.

The more rapidly the world changes, the greater the value of mutations of all sorts. One never knows whether today's maladaptation will not prove to be tomorrow's winner. Ecosystems are invariably comprised of niches and different genes - even mutated ones - may fit different niches.

In the 18th century most peppered moths in Britain were silvery gray, indistinguishable from lichen-covered trunks of silver birches - their habitat. Darker moths were gobbled up by rapacious birds. Their mutated genes proved to be lethal. As soot from sprouting factories blackened these trunks - the very same genes, hitherto fatal, became an unmitigated blessing. The blacker specimen survived while their hitherto perfectly adapted fairer brethren perished (""industrial melanism""). This mode of natural selection is called directional.

Moreover, ""bad"" genes are often connected to ""desirable genes"" (pleitropy). Sickle cell anemia protects certain African tribes against malaria. This is called ""diversifying or disruptive natural selection"". Artificial selection can thus fast deteriorate into adverse selection due to ignorance.

Modern eugenics relies on statistics. It is no longer concerned with causes - but with phenomena and the likely effects of intervention. If the adverse traits of off-spring and parents are strongly correlated - then preventing parents with certain undesirable qualities from multiplying will surely reduce the incidence of said dispositions in the general population. Yet, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. The manipulation of one parameter of the correlation does not inevitably alter it - or the incidence of the outcome.

Eugenicists often hark back to wisdom garnered by generations of breeders and farmers. But the unequivocal lesson of thousands of years of artificial selection is that cross-breeding (hybridization) - even of two lines of inferior genetic stock - yields valuable genotypes. Inter-marriage between races, groups in the population, ethnic groups, and clans is thus bound to improve the species' chances of survival more than any eugenic scheme.

About the author: Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com

Friday, December 29, 2006

The REAL ANTIGRAVITY and RELATIVITY

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

Astrodynamics delivers conundra of astronomical proportions. The sheer size of the Universe, its mass and the velocities of bodies stretch the imagination to the limit.

It is little-known that Einstein did NOT receive the Nobel Prize for relativity. He had ALREADY received the 1921 prize in 1922 for PHOTOELECTRICS. Yet even a distinguished scholar like Einstein can be snubbed when the theories become too extravagant.

Subsequently, his relativity theory - within its narrow, specialised constraints - was proven to be true.

At my website I show the principles behind the REAL anti-gravity. You can read it from http://wehner.org/agrav .

The concept is simple. However, science CAN ONLY advance by small steps. Elaborate conjectures based upon such ideas as the ""Gravitron"" particle - without SOLID proof that they actually exist - are doomed to fail.

The simple idea is that the Moon is held to the Earth by gravity, and experiences due to its orbit a repulsive force known as ""centrifugal force"". These two forces balance, to produce a stable system that has survived since pre-historic times. So much is KNOWN.

Then we imagine the ""Man in the Moon"". He has lived on the ""illuminated"" side of the Moon since pre-historic times, and knows that the Moon is held to the Earth by gravity. But the counterbalancing force cannot be explained as ""centrifugal force"". The ""Man in the Moon"" sees only the ROTATION of the Earth - one degree every FOUR MINUTES - and has to use this fact to explain the stability of the system.

So the ""Man in the Moon"" would use IDENTICAL mathematics to those on Earth who compute ORBIT. However, the sums would be UPSIDE DOWN. He would compute how much thrust (ANTI-GRAVITY) is delivered by the SPIN of a body.

I have done this on my website, and show that the upside-down equations reveal a thrust that increases LINEARLY with distance for any constant spin.

This is surprising, because thrust increases INVERSELY with distance for any constant orbital velocity.

So, if in our dreams we could create an anti-gravity machine (NO!!! I DO NOT HAVE ANY DESIGN-PLANS!), it would not lift off the CARPET, but off some distant place, such as the centre of the Earth. The further away the object, the greater the thrust - and the carpet is too near.

In our imagining, we can visualise some machine lifting away from the carpet, and the pile of that carpet IMMEDIATELY standing erect - because the anti-gravity ""footprint"" would be far away.

The mathematics shows us what WOULD happen, but not how to build a machine. The ""Action at a Great Distance"" conclusion from the anti-gravity equations suggests that building such a machine would not be easy.

Einstein had been working as an assistant to an eminent Swiss astronomer when he found that the Newtonian mechanics broke down when applied to astrodynamics. This was the origin of the new mechanics that was to become known as ""Relativity"".

My own conjectures on ANTI-GRAVITY come up against similar problems, and deliver a similar solution.

The Moon travels around the Earth at about 65,000 miles per hour. This is equivalent, as stated, to a spin of just 15 arc-seconds per minute.

Astrodynamicists have FREQUENTLY ignored the tiny rotational motion of bodies in the solar system, because they SEEMED to be NEGLIGIBLE. The new discovery shows, however, that such small rotations are NOT TO BE DISCOUNTED, because when the mathematics is turned around they represent sizeable orbital velocities.

This leads to the question as to whether ALL equations can be turned around. Can EVERY spin be translated into an orbit?

The size of the Universe suggests otherwise. If antigravity increases linearly with distance, it must be INFINITE, or nearly so, at the outer fringes of the Universe.

So the hand of a child can spin a spinning-top (the energy required is small). However, can the hand of a child put the Universe into orbit around that spinning-top, and at several times or several hundred times per second?

Spin-orbit duality breaks down somewhere.

One can use the ""Law of Conservation of Energy"" to avoid such absurd notions as a child setting the Universe in motion. However, we must consider RELATIVITY.

Newtonian mechanics says that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Einstein's relativity says that energy can be destroyed. If there is MATTER, such as an ELECTRON, it has REST-MASS. Here we must already say ""AT rest - RELATIVE to what""? However, we will leave this point unanswered, because this article is very general.

According to Relativity, a tiny increase in speed from rest of that electron will give it energy HALF M (V squared), where M is the rest-mass. This energy will be destroyed by being incorporated into the mass of the electron. So using M2 (C squared), we can compute M2.

As the electron goes faster, by an identical tiny increase in speed, its energy is HALF (M+M2) (V squared), then HALF (M+M2+M3) (V squared) and so on.

When the Moon is travelling at 65 thousand miles per hour, this compares with light travelling at 669,600,000 miles per hour, approximately.

Light travels therefore at a speed about TEN THOUSAND times faster than the Moon.

The change in mass is proportional to C-squared, just as the energy of motion is proportional to V-squared. So speeds of one ten-thousandth of that of light (four places) will deliver energy equations that are accurate to EIGHT.

It would be nonsense, however, to use my antigravity equations to TWENTY places of decimals and to expect all places to be valid.

We see relativity creeping in, and upsetting the mathematics - but in the Earth-Moon system it is still imperceptible. That is why I used the ""Law of Conservation of Energy"" to derive the results - the errors are still small.

The Moon is a quarter of a million miles away from Earth. So is we multiply this by ten thousand we get TWO-AND-A-HALF THOUSAND-MILLION miles. This is about 26.8 Astronomical Units. At this point, the orbital velocity is similar to the speed of light, and Einstein says that the mathematics breaks down.

So if we consider the hand of a child spinning a top, and INSIST on the conservation of energy, we must adjust the expression HALF M (V-squared) as we move away from the child's top.

Either the mass M of bodies must be adjusted to become less and less, the further away we go (RELATIVITY MASS), or the velocity V of bodies must become less and less as we move away from the spinning body (RELATIVITY VELOCITY).

It makes a kind of sense to choose to alter V. However, this is composed of two fundamental units, distance D and time T, where V=D/T.

We cannot alter the distance, because it is Pi times the diameter of the ""orbit"". So if D cannot diminish, T must INCREASE.

What this means is that a perceived time T is actually LONGER at that distant place than we had known.

So we need TIME DILATION to deal with the breakdown of spin-orbit duality at relativistic speeds.

Fortunately, linear particle-accelerators have successfully slowed down time until mesons that lived for just a microsecond could be studied for SECONDS.

So Einstein's time-dilation has been PROVEN.

The conundrum of spin-orbit duality breakdown has delivered a similar result. Einstein has been vindicated again.

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Charles Douglas Wehner was born in 1944. He was a technical author, a design engineer and the manager of a photoelectrics manufacturing company.

Can New Born Chickens Influence a Robot?

Author: Thomas Herold

Decades ago Albert Einstein told us that space and time are not conditions in which we live; they are modes in which we think.

'Nonlocality and the Observer' is a fascinating documentation from a workshop held by Mike Wright. The first 30 minutes are a warm up into the realm of quantum physics. But then fasten your seat belts and be prepared for some big surprises that may change the way you think about yourself and your abilities to communicate with others.

Mike Wright explains how quantum theory and laboratory experiments verify that we have a connection to everyone and everything we have ever interacted with. You will learn the concepts that allow you to not only change your future but change your personal past.

Einstein also told us that what we see depends upon the theories we use to interpret our observations. Mike explains how as the Observer you affect reality. How we experience life depends upon the information we have to interpret our interactions.

The information in this video allows you to update your personal model of reality and thus change how you view the world and your experiences in it.

The Priceton Experiments In 1980 Princeton University made one of the most scientific studies on consciousness. The outcome of these experiments are still not accepted from a majority of scientists today. The implication of these experiments are on such a big scale that our consciousness has difficulties in grasping its potential.

They took two random people that were not related to one other and have never seen each other in this life time. The two participants then were told to just spend 30 minutes together. After that one participant was moved away and placed in a special room, which was completely isolated from the other person. Furthermore, the outside of the room were separated by a Faraday capsule to insure that no physical signals whatsoever could travel between the two of them.

Both participants were then hooked up withEEG (measurement for the electrical activity of the brain) readers. Now, the person in the isolated room was given visual and acoustic stimuli. The stimuli of course showed up in the EEG. But, and here is the stunning surprise of this experiment, the same stimuli showed up an the other participant's EEG. Taking the EEG from both participants and comparing them on a time scale showed that when the person in the separated room showed a stimuli in the EEG the other person's EEG showed the same stimuli, at the same time!

The outcome of this experiment was so exciting that they immediately came up with some other ideas. Also they thought that maybe there was a sort of placebo effect involved or maybe the human being had something special, which was causing that outcome. So they went on to widen these experiments to include animals.

The first experiments involved new born chickens. New born chickens relate to anything moving in their environment as their mother. They were building a small robot based on a random event generator, which produces simple right and left turns based on the random event being zero or one. The chickens were placed in a cage and the robot was positioned out of the cage. What happened is that the robot turned significant more times towards the cage than away from it.

The expected 50% left and right movement were no more random!

In another experiment they used new born rabbits, which are very sensitive to light. This time the robot was equipped with a bright flash light on top and was placed near the cage were the young rabbits were in. In turns out this time that the robot moved significantly more times away from the cage than towards the cage. Again, the randomness was no more random!

About the author: Thomas Herold is the founder and CEO of Quantum Biocommunication Technology. Quantum Biocommunication Technology

Spin-Orbit Duality, Astromechanics and Anti-Gravity

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

ANTIGRAVITY has long been the ""holy grail"" that scientists sought after. It was considered that when found, it would lead immediately to amazing flying machines.

Theories of antigravity have always been based on theories of gravity, and on the invention of ""mathematical models"" or ""mind pictures"" involving gravity PARTICLES or ""Gravitrons"".

The TRUE secret of antigravity was revealed in 2002 on my website. There are no outlandish claims about special particles, or mysterious ""forces"".

It is just the ORBITAL THRUST of a body when seen from that body. What you see from orbit is SPIN - so this must give a thrust.

From the Moon, the Earth turns just ONE degree every FOUR MINUTES. This may seem to be a trivial movement, but when turned backwards into orbit, it represents the 65,000 miles-per-hour orbital motion of the moon.

So astronomers ignore spin at their peril.

And those amazing MACHINES? Not just yet - you see, antigravity works at a DISTANCE.

http://www.wehner.org/agrav/

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: An electronics engineer and technical author, born 1944, with extensive experience of computer, radar, safety equipment and instrumentation-and-control design. Such work led to a deeper study of the laws of nature, from which this discovery emerged.

Thursday, December 28, 2006

Euler's Identity and the Eucalculus

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

People find mathematics - particularly higher mathematics - difficult. This is perhaps due to a lack of VISUAL IMAGERY with which to bring the concepts to life.

As a professional technical author, I decided to use graphical techniques to simplify the understanding of such things as Euler's equation.

This allowed me to guide the reader into a study of the Fractional Factorials - which Euler called the ""GAMMA FUNCTION"" - and introduce a brand-new extension to the Calculus. This I call the Eucalculus.

But one does not rush headlong into uncharted territory. Warnings are issued that there may be pitfalls in the established Art of mathematics, let alone in this cutting-edge development.

See http://www.wehner.org/euler/

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Born in 1944, Charles Wehner is an electronics design engineer and technical author working in so many fields linked to electronics that he was obliged to investigate the fundaments of the mathematics that he used.

Home fly

Author: Mohammad Ali Abid

Home fly may trams fir a disease but with that disease it may provide medicine also. The prophet Mohammed PBUH said It the home fly falls in your drink then dip the whole fly into the drink pull it out because on one of its wings there may be a disease but there is its medicine on the other wing (Refer Bukar, Ibn Maja Ahmed.He also said Verily on one of the wings of home fly there is poison and on the other wing there is its cure If home fly falls on food then dip the fly in it because it brings for word the poison and delays the cure Refer to Ahamed IBN Maja There is medical miracle in the a bore sayings of the prophet Mohammed PBUH which if the international medical circles are just must be recognized and recorded by golden ink. What has been revealed by the prophet of Islam before fourteen centuries the modern discovery. The prophets saying shows the significance of the venation between the poison its are the body subject to disease. The above saying shows that if the home fly fall in eatables or drink bales we have to remember that it might drop in it harmful germs. We have to remember also that the home fly is nursing the medicine for the same disease caused by the germs it dropped in the food or drunk. Therefore if we dip the whole insect inside the food drink, then we create ahggenic balance. In other words we can be safe of the disease because we have already got its medicine. The amount of the bacteria dose in the fly is equal to the amount of the bacteria therefore it is capable of eliminating it. Now it is suientically prophet that the fly secrets an enzyme called bacteria or germs killer which may hang on or attack the home fly. Hence it is a proof to the cerrectness of the saying of the prophet of Islam. Dr. Amin Ridha, the professor of bones surgeon in medical college in Alexandria Unwisely wrote a research about the He dith of Home Fly. He confirmed that the old medical references contain medical prescribe tion to different diseases which advice to use Home fly. In the modern time the surgeons of the 1930 who were in the period which preceded the discover of sulfate have witnessed the medication of chuonic bone breaks and chuonic ulcers by Home fly This bone breaks and chuonic ulcers undulates that modern science has confirmed the correctness of the prophets sayings which have been revealed to him by Allah before fourteen centuries Source scientific Miracles in Islam Sunna Nabaweya

About the author: Mohammad Ali is a student of islamic studies and By profession he is an business personality.His mission is to create the awareness about islam to everyone.

Predators

Author: Mohammad Ali Abid

The prophet Mohammed (PBUH) said “It is prohibited upon my nation to eat whatever has claws & what has canine tooth, from predatory animals” [Refer to Abu Daud] The Modern Nourishment science confirmed that people acquire some of the characteristics of animals which they eat because the meat of those animals contain some kind of secreted horn ones & components which affect the moral ethical & behavioral quality of those who eat it. It was discovered that when a predatory bird or animal is on a hunting task, some glands in its body secret some kinds of harmonies which help it to confront, light & kill the victim. Dr. S Libij, the teacher of nourishment in England, says: These secreted materials and harmonies are found in the body of the predatory even it was a captive in a large. This is manifest when you visit the zoo and see the tiger while it is eating a piece of meat. You can see the anger, cruelty & agitated nervous exposed through its face & general behavior. Compare such an animal with the elephant & see the mildness which is manifest on its face while it is eating & playing with children visitors. Look at the lion; its cruelty & roughness & compare it with the camel & its mildness. It was observed that nations who eat predators whether birds or animals which has been prohibited by Islam, those nations have cruel & violent tendencies even if there was no reason behind being cruel. They have such tendencies just for the sake of blood shedding. Researches confirmed that this fact is manifest among backward tribes who due to the excessive eating of predators meat become extremely cruel & turn into cannibals. Researches confirmed that those tribes are also affected by sexual anarchy. They don’t have respect to the institution of family and honor. They are living way of way that is almost similar to that of predators and beats. The male attacks another male & kill him so that to pull-away & consume the available females till another male who is more stronger comes & kills the previous triumphant & possess as well as sexually consume the already consumed females & so on. This may be behind the absence of the value of honor and may appearance of sexual aberration among the Europeans. Abnormal sexual behaviors exist now among the Europeans. They exchange wives, betray wives & vice versa. It is well known that even if the pig is reared in clean & well-cared fences, it does not forget its dirty nature. If it is realized, it will, again, return to the habit of eating dirts & enjoy it more that the joy which it used to experience when eating potato & beas in sterile and clean fences. This is the reason which makes the bodies of pigs contain various warms, parasites & microbes and excessive bolic acid. All these get transferred to the body of the consumer of the pork. The meat of the pig contains also a higher percentage of fat compared to that of other animals. Therefore its digestion is difficult. It is well known that the quality of meat eaten by man depends on its fat. The fatter the meat contains the move difficult for digestion it is. The American encyclopedia shows that each one hundred pounds of pig meat contain about fifty pounds fat. This means that fat is 50% of the quantity of park, whereas it is only 17% in sheep meat & in cow meat it is not more than 5%. It was found that the fat of pork contains a high percentage of complicated fatty acids. The percentage of cholesterol in the meat of pig, sheep and cow is 9:7:6 respectively. Simply this means that the percentage of cholesterol in pork is ten times more than that of cow meat. This means that the meat of pig is dangerous to human health because it increases the percentage of cholesterol in blood. When the quantity of cholesterol increases in the human blood and becomes more than the normal amount it starts sedimenting in arteries, particularly in the heart arteries, consequently it causes high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis and both are the main cause of heart attack which is wide spread in Europe. It was found that the statistics of heart attack published in Europe indicate that the percentage of heart attack and arteriosclerosis cases in Europe is five time more than those in the Islamic world, in addition to the nervous tension which the modern medicine considers it as a factor behind such diseases. It is worthy mentioning that the predatory animals are known as canine tooth animals which has been mentioned id the saying of the prophet Mohammed (PBUH). They are having four canines in the upper & lower laws. This is not only confined to the animals, but it also include some types of birds. Birds are divided into two types, grass eaters such as hens and pigeons, as well meat eaters such as eagles and falcons. However, to make a scientific distinction between these two types, it is said that the meat eater bird has a violent piercing claws whereas the home birds such as hens & pigeons are not having such piercing claws. Moreover, it is well known that the normal human nature repulses from eating the meat of meat of the predators, whether animals or birds, except in some so-called civilized materialistic societies & in some back ward tribes as we mentioned before. All these facts indicate that Islam knows what is harmful to human beings and therefore it has made this scientific classification of meat since fourteen centuries so that to protect man from what ever is harmful & honor him by not allowing him to eat beast-like animal and turns himself into an ailing beast. Source: “Scientific Miracles in Islam & Sunna Nabaweya

About the author: proffesional busines person and islamic scholar mllat@mail2pakistan.com

Wednesday, December 27, 2006

Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter

Author: K.A.Cassimally

It is in the latest Harry Potter novel, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, that readers get the confirmation that the ‘Boy who lived’ is indeed interested in a science that even some Muggles are good at: Astronomy, the study of celestial objects, of space and of the physical universe as a whole. Maybe the awful Dursleys did do some good things with Harry when they let the wizard, who did not yet know he was one, learn Astronomy.

At Hogwards School of Witchcraft and Wizardry though, Harry and his two best friends, Ron and Hermione, seemed to be going on more with the giant of the giants: Jupiter but to be more precise with its moons.

But unluckily for the wizards and witches, Astronomy was making life difficult. As Harry and his friends would be sitting for their O.W.L.S (Ordinary Wizarding Level) at the end of the year, they were bombarded with homework. This was fortunately corrected by Hermione before being actually handed to the teachers. And believe me, this was a good thing too as both Harry and Ron were making terrible mistakes. If it were not for Hermione, both boys would be getting a ‘D’ standing for Dreadful on the top corner of their parchment rolls. An would be: ‘“Harry, you must have misheard Professor Sinistra,” says Hermione, “Europa’s covered in ice not mice!”’

Europa as you might have guessed is way too cold for mice. Spacecrafts have taken photos of this natural satellite and Europa does look lifeless.

If you are a Harry Potter fan though, you may well say that Harry went on Europa by magic and then saw living organisms there. Well coming to think of it, maybe he did find life on Europa if of course he ever went there.

This is because below Europa’s ice coating, scientists think that there may well be a big ocean of liquid water. The biggest ocean in the Solar System in fact and that says something. Here on Earth, life and water appear to go together. So it is logical to think that there may be life in that ocean of Europa, is it not? Of course life in the form of microbes or some sort of alien fish is expected. And maybe swimming mice!

Unfortunately the mystery of life in Europa cannot be solved by this generation and I personally think nor can the next. This is because of the technology which still needs to take a big step forwards.

Back at Hogwarts, Hermione who was correcting one of Ron’s essay about Io, another of Jupiter’s numerous satellites, when she spotted yet another mistake. She remarked, “And it’s Io that’s got the volcanoes.”

She was right again. Some people (I’ll say including Ron) say that Io looks like a pepperoni pizza because the satellite is dotted with volcanoes. “Io has more pepperoni-coloured volcanoes than Ron Weasley has freckles,” says Dr. Tony Phillips. At this very moment dozens of these volcanoes are vomiting the hottest lava in the Solar System. The plumes rise so high into space that volcanic ash freezes before falling back to the ground as sulphurous snow. NASA’s spacecrafts have actually flown through these plumes and survived.

Back on Earth and at Hogwarts more precisely where Hermione told Ron over the latter’s shoulder, ‘“Jupiter’s biggest moon is Ganymede, not Callisto.”’

Ganymede is the largest known satellite discovered in the entire Solar System. It is a little wider than Mercury, which is the closest planet to the Sun in the Solar System.

Ron’s mistake is not of those terrible ones though because Callisto is only a little smaller than Ganymede. Like Europa, Callisto may be concealing an ocean.

These four satellites were all discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1960. Galilei was astounded when he observed Jupiter through his primitive telescope as he saw four little ‘stars’ near the giant planet. He was even more amazed when he discovered that these ‘stars’ were moving in what seemed to be an orbit around Jupiter from night to night. Astronomers now call these four natural satellites the Galilean satellites.

Almost everything that is known about the Galilean satellites comes from NASA’s spacecraft, especially the two Voyager probes. But Hogwarts is a school of magic whereas Astronomy is simply magic.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal, a small publication of the RCPL Astronomy Club, Mauritius. Check out the new website (to be launched in February 2004): http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

Asteroid Attack

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Earth, ‘our mother planet’, is being attacked everyday by about 25 tons of dust and sand-sized particles. An asteroid, the size of a small car, hits Earth’s atmosphere about once in every year.

Fortunately she knows how to defend herself. When that small car-sized asteroid enters her atmosphere, she burns the asteroid up before the latter touches her surface. So no damage is done.

But what exactly are asteroids? Asteroids are fragments from the formation of the Solar System some 4.6 billion years ago. Fortunately, most asteroids are found in the Asteroid Belt found between the planets Mars and Jupiter, the gas giant. Scientists think that asteroids found in the belt can be as big as 940 km across.

Like everybody though, Earth cannot cope with each and every one of the asteroids.

If an asteroid has managed not to be completely burned up while sprinting into Earth’s atmosphere, then ???? Scientists think that the collision would cause local damage to the surrounding area.

If that same asteroid however measures more than 1 km across when it touches Earth’s surface, disaster is on its way. Scientists believe that this impact could have worldwide effects. Man however is helping or trying to help our mother Earth.

Astronomers are now observing and tracking asteroids, which are at an average distance from Earth to Moon. By immediately tracking potential dangers and learning more about their orbital paths, scientists have more time to study potentially threatening situations. In the next few years, NASA hopes to discover more than 90% of all Earth’s threatening objects larger than 1 km across.

But we have to stop these threatening asteroids from hitting Earth so as to ‘save’ ourselves.

In some movies, we see a missile being launched straight towards a big asteroid. The latter then explodes and the film usually ends. But in reality, it’s not that simple. Did you ever think what might happen to the biggest remains of that big asteroid? Maybe it would go and enter Earth’s atmosphere or maybe not. If it does pass this first test, maybe it will cause big damages or maybe not. You will agree with me that man cannot take such a risk.

An idea suggests that if a small asteroid is indeed intending to hit Earth, an engine is to be anchored in it. This engine is simply going to push the asteroid away.

Yet another strategy to put the asteroid out of the way is to attach solar sails to it. The ‘gentle’ pressure of sunlight on the sails will deflect the asteroid away from Earth.

Luckily an asteroid the size of a football field manages to hit the Earth only every thousand years or so but mind you I do not know when such an asteroid did hit Earth last.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal, a small publication of the RCPL Astronomy Club, Mauritius. Here is the new website(to be launched in February 2004): http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

Chromatography - Hayrapetyan's Effect

Author: Aram Hayrapetyan

""It was not so difficult to invent a new basic technology of Chromatography - Chromabarography; it is rather difficult to wait for its wide practical use for the development of science in the benefit of mankind!"" Aram Hayrapetyan

There are the best chromatographs in the world, the most modern technological elaborations, but there is not the one, which provides the maximum efficiency of the chromatographic column.

I have a lot of secrets in the field of chromatography! One of them is the attainment of maximum possible efficiency of the chromatographic column (HAYRAPETYAN'S Effect). It is provided with new basic technology of chromatography - CHROMABAROGRAPHY (Russia patent ""Chromatograph of A. S. Hayrapetyan"").

The essence of the new basic technology of chromatography - chromabarography is the provision of the optimal conditions of the analysis by keeping unchanged the linear rate of an imaginary point - the zone of the sample moved in time by the carrier-gas from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column, ? p being kept constant at its ends during the whole cycle of the analysis, by which a maximum column efficiency (Hayrapetyan's Effect) is attained.

What is Chromabarography? The answer may be so: Or . . . so: The main advantages of the proposed technology in practical analysis may be generated in the form of the following propositions:

Attainment of maximum possible efficiency of the column on account of providing the optimal conditions of the analysis by keeping unchanged the linear rate of an imaginary point - the zone of the sample moved in time by the carrier-gas from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column;

Reduction of analysis time for a wide range of mixtures, which allows to work with a shorter column (economy of solid support, liquid phase, column material) and at much lower temperatures (economy of electricity) for which the relative retention is generally high. Thus the best separation is attained without increasing the analysis time. This means an increase in the productivity of routine analyses and elaboration of chromatographic methods;

Due to the fact that it is possible to work at lower temperatures (economy of electricity) the amount of the liquid phases used in the given analysis is increased. At the same time low working temperatures may become necessary for certain thermally unstable samples (increase in column service time);

As the peak height is related with carrier-gas rate, wide peaks eluted later will be much sharper. This allows a better identification of low concentrations (increase in analysis accuracy);

Attainment of symmetrical peaks also in case of nonlinear adsorption isotherm, as the rear of the band is at a higher pressure than the front;

The substantial enrichment, the increase in concentration of the component in the center of the band is conditioned by the compression of the band both as a consequence of the moving pressure gradient compared with the initial sorption pressure, and as a consequence of the presence of the moving gradient of the optimal linear speed accompanying the band of components being analyzed from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column during the while analysis cycle (increase in the efficiency of the separation of the components);

The pressure of the gas in the column can be changed almost instantaneously and equilibrium can be attained in a very short time. Pressure re-regulation excludes the necessity of long ""periods of cooling"" of the column (express - analysis, economy of electricity), while temperature increase programming may either cause evaporation of the stationary phase, which ""flies out"" of the column, or destroy it chemically to various molecules, which also will soon come out by the carrier-gas. The repetitive cycles of heating and cooling may cause compression of solid support particles during expansion, followed by destruction (crumbling) during compression, which leads to a progressive change of permeability. The maximum possible effectivity of the chromatographic column - Hayrapetyan's Effect

The maximum possible effectivity of the chromatographic column - Hayrapetyan's E ff e c t

All the rest - XX century.

P. S.

C h r o m a b a r o g r a p h y A new step of effectivity, A first - hand new technology.

Toward the new century with a new technology.

About the author: ARAM HAYRAPETYAN 47/6 Vardanants Street, Vanadzor 377201, Republic of Armenia, E-mail: invent@freenet.am Web-site: HTTP://CHROMATOGRAPHY.HOTBOX.RU PUBLICATIONS AND ARTICLES: 57 published works, including 21 certificates for individual authorship from USSR and Russia, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. PERSONAL DATES: Born 17 May 1945, married, two children. Daughter born 1972, married. Son born 1977.

Tuesday, December 26, 2006

A spring called: Drop of water

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Do you know what happens when a drop of water hits a non-absorbent surface? Yeah you’re right (if you don’t have the answer, please re-read the title of this column), the drop bounces upwards.

A French scientific team from the Coll?ge de France have studied the scene carefully with a camera that took 40000 images per second. Here are the results: At first, when it hits the surface, the drop flattens. Then, it bounces up due to the movement energy it had when falling down. The drop will continue going upwards eventually taking the shape of a needle. Afterwards, the drop falls upon itself, into itself. It thus takes the shape of a pancake (again) but this time, the drop is in midair.

This phenomenon is different to a drop falling on other surfaces as in this case, the drop crashes on the surface leaving only a small quantity of the water to bounce up. Physicists have also found out that the actual speed of a drop influences its deformation but not the time taken for it to get in contact with the surface. This actually depends upon the mass of the drop.

Anyway why is all this stuff important anyway? Scientists believe that this find may be of interest to the industry. There’s a small illustration: Imagine not seeing droplets of rain on your car’s windscreen when it is in fact raining cats and dogs outside. Cool, isn’t it? Well this may well be possible with these new data obtained by the scientists from the Coll?ge de France. How though? Easy enough! The period of contact of the raindrops with the windscreen is so minimal that the driver does not even see them!

Water drops bounces like springs, would you ever have thought of this? No, I’m not sure you would.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu :http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

The Colour of Electrons and the CCD

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

The world of physics is a strange world indeed.

At the end of the nineteenth century it was found that a negatively charged metal plate would discharge when illuminated, but a positively charged one would not.

Then it was found by some researchers that NO metal plate would discharge.

Other researchers found that red light had no effect, but blue discharged the plate.

The ""photoelectric effect"" was a mess.

Max Planck discovered that light consisted of particles. And each particle (or quantum) had an energy that could be defined as Joules.

The science was very simple. Take the frequency of that light particle, multiply by Planck's constant, and you find how many Joules of energy are in that particle.

You could even pretend that this light particle collided with an electric particle - the electron. If so, it would transfer its energy to that electron in just the same way as the chemistry of a battery energises electrons.

So we could define the near infra-red as 1.7 electron volts, and at the other end of the spectrum ultra-violet begins at 3.2.

For this he got the Nobel prize.

With the electron-voltages of light being now defined, Einstein decided to tackle the problem of the metal plate. Why was it that only NEGATIVE electricity would be discharged? Because there is only one kind of ""charge-carrier"". Or so it seemed at the time.

Why did some researchers find that NO metal plate would discharge? Because the voltages are LOW. Even the slightest film of grease or dirt could INSULATE against less than 3.2 volts.

And why did blue light work when red did not? The answer lay in Planck's electron voltages.

Einstein discovered that the effect varied with the TYPE of metal used for that plate. Each element, sodium, potassium, iron, copper, the noble metals such as platinum &c., had a unique voltage.

That voltage represented the energy that had to be present in the light in order to free the electrons.

That voltage became known as the WORK FUNCTION.

Knowing this, scientists began to research the forces that hold atoms together. In the technical literature, Einstein's name was cited so often that the Nobel Prize Committee could not ignore it.

So Einstein won the Nobel Prize.

It is true that further researches modified the simple model that scientists had used. For example, the particle model of Planck suggested that an ultra-violet ""PHOTON"" could travel for thousands of millions of years through space, retaining its 3.2 eV energy - and NEVER become two photons at 1.6 eV each.

This is the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER.

But after that huge journey, it needs only for that photon to hit a suitable crystal and it does indeed divide. You get TWO photons for the price of ONE. This is only possible if the photon consists of NOTHING.

So the wave model of light began to supervene. Waves consist of nothing but a pattern. And questions were asked as to whether there is a SUBSTANCE in which the waves are formed. Does space consist of aether?

In some of my work I have reintroduced the concept of aether, but not as a SUBSTANCE. To me, there is a need for a grid of lines in space, for navigation. As on a map there is latitude and longitude (which are not substances), so in space we need a kind of latitude, longitude and altitude. Without that we get lost.

But the question of whether light is particles or waves was never resolved. Sometimes it behaves as one, and sometimes as the other.

Again, the concept that there is only one kind of charge-carrier has been overthrown. In solids there can be positive, negative or both.

A conductor conducts both charge-carriers. A vacuum conducts only the negative ones. So a vacuum is an N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR.

The discovery of semiconductors led to huge advances in the field of electronics. There are P-TYPE as well as N-TYPE semiconductors, and a remarkable symmetry of behaviour can be seen between them.

So light is like a particle in the VACUUM STATE, and shows the properties of a wave in the SOLID STATE.

Bizarre!

My interest in these things is not amusement alone. Wherever profound discoveries are made, profound new benefits to Mankind become possible.

If a metal is used for that photocell plate, that needs 1.5 volts, and infra-red shines upon it at 1.7 eV, electrons emerge at 0.2 volts.

If the light is at 2.5 eV, the ""secondary electrons"" will have 1 volt of charge. If the light is blue, at 3 volts, the elctrons will have 1.5 volts. It is a simple subtraction process. That is Einstein's photoelectric effect.

So with a field plate charged to minus 0.2 volts, we can push back the ""infra-red electrons"". With minus 1 volt on the plate, we can push back the yellow ones. With minus 1.5 volts, we can push back even the blue electrons.

Infra-red electrons? Yellow electrons? Blue electrons? In reality, these things are not their colours but their speeds. For each electron retains the energy that was left over after the Einstein Work-Function was subtracted from the photon.

This makes the colour sensitivity of a digital image-sensor PROGRAMMABLE. Instead of having red, green and blue filters on an image sensor, we can have NO FILTERS.

Digital techniques are used to analyse the colour of the image. The benefits are enormous.

For example, we live in a world of daylight and artificial light. Daylight is rich in blue, tungsten light is rich in red. When the colour balance of the device depends not upon chemical filters with their fixed colours, but upon software, the device can better adapt to the lighting.

You can read about this new concept in CCD image sensor design at http://www.wehner.org/electro/einstein/ . Seven related inventions are also described, to help the design along.

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Born in 1944, Charles Douglas Wehner was a factory manager, design engineer and technical author in photoelectrics.

Monday, December 25, 2006

Nature Will Not Imagine

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

Mathematicians can be pig-headed. Sometimes there are problems that admit of no solution, but the mathematician ignores common sense and presses on regardless.

One such question would be ""WHERE, ON A UNIT CIRCLE, IS A POINT FIVE UNITS TO THE RIGHT FROM THE CENTRE""?

Pythagoras gave an answer. The hypotenuse is a unit, so you square it. The square is still a unit. Now you look at the position to the right. It is five units. You square it to twenty-five and take it away.

Then you find the square root.

But one minus twenty-five is MINUS TWENTY-FOUR. What is the root of a negative number?

There is no answer!

But common sense tells you that nothing can be on a circle if it is further from the centre than the radius. The answer ""NOT ON THE CIRCLE"" leaps to mind.

Girolamo Cardano was a mathematician who was even consulted by Leonardo da Vinci. He was also a gambler, but used his knowledge of probability to get the better of his opponents. He decided that he had the solution.

You split up the problem into two parts. The root of 36 is 6. However, one can try the root of 4 times 9 - in which case one has the root of 4 times the root of 9. The answer is the same.

So you look for the root of -1 times the root of 24.

The root of any negative number will be the root of -1 times the root of the absolute value of that number.

So the root of -36 is the root of -1 times six.

The root of -1 is defined as IMAGINARY, so the root of -36 is IMAGINARY SIX. And the answer to the position on a unit circle of the point X=5? That will be Y=IMAGINARY ROOT 24.

Cardano was scoffed at. He died. The years went by, and slowly the mathematical community began to realise that the idea was not quite so bad after all.

It was a NEW TECHNIQUE. To solve problems, you simply follow the rules slavishly. These rules began to be taught in the universities. People were taught that the old numbers - the REAL ones - had to be kept separate from the imaginary ones. They learned to describe a two-part number having real and imaginary as a COMPLEX NUMBER.

The rules say that whenever you multiply real by real you get real. Multiply real by imaginary (of imaginary by real) and you get imaginary. Multiply imaginary by imaginary and you get MINUS real.

Simple rules, easy to apply.

But how does this impact upon the whole of mathematics? What happens to sines, cosines, logarithms and other things when you use complex numbers in place of real ones? A host of great mathematicians - including the legendary Leonhard Euler - worked on this question. Complex mathematics was becoming established as a standard tool.

Problems began to become apparent. The simplistic concept of ROOT -1 was actually wrong. It should have been ""ONE OF THE ROOTS OF -1"". There are actually two.

Then the problem of multiple solutions appeared. As I wrote at http://www.wehner.org/euler/ , this problem can be visualised by considering the antilogarithm of an imaginary number as a SPIRAL IN COMPLEX SPACE. What is the lowest point? One for every turn of the spiral. Therefore multiple solutions.

I then continued the research by delving deeply into Euler's GAMMA FUNCTION. Here, for numbers below zero, the result negates in unit steps. I called this the NEGATION FUNCTION, which is also a spiral in complex space.

I posed the riddle, how do you create a diagram of the Gamma function when it spirals in one place and not in the other?

I solved that riddle with a surprising answer. NATURE IN THIS CONTEXT REJECTS THE IMAGINARY. There is no solution to the Gamma Function if you use complex maths. There is no complex space.

That is to say, the square root of -1 has two answers, but Nature insists that you must take them BOTH AT THE SAME TIME.

This is quite different to the roots of real numbers. The roots of 4 are 2 *OR* -2.

The roots of -1 are i1 *AND* -i1. Take BOTH or NONE, in the case of the Gamma Function. Otherwise, the riddle is insoluble.

But i1 makes the spiral go left whilst -i1 makes the spiral go right. Making the spiral go equally left and right will STOP it from spiralling. So both is the equivalent of none. Nature has REJECTED the imaginary.

At this point I wrote (http://www.wehner.org/euler/solution.htm ) that ""If it can be shown for other functions unrelated to the Gamma function, and having a negation function, that Nature rejects the imaginary axis in this way, then it can be said that Nature rejects complex mathematics as a human product. ""

I had not expected that Nature would then reveal to me a function that rejects the imaginary axis without having a negation function. It is the INVERSE function to the exponential. That is to say, it is the LOGARITHM.

From the first page above, you can visualise Euler's equation for the exponential (exp(i X) = cos(X) + i sin(X)) as a spiral. You can see that exp(i Pi) gives -1. So does exp (i 3Pi). So does exp (i 5Pi). So do ALL the odd imaginary multiples of Pi. So do all the negative values of those odd imaginary multiples.

So the log of -1 is ALL of those positive and negative odd imaginary multiples of Pi. It does not really matter whether they are AND or OR. It only matters that they are there.

I then considered the logarithm of zero. This is known to be MINUS INFINITY.

But what of MINUS ZERO? This may seem like a silly question, but it is not. We have considered the log of any negative number to be the log of the positive equivalent plus one or more odd imaginary multiples of Pi. So the log of minus zero will be minus infinity just like the log of zero - but with a DIFFERENCE.

For all the negative numbers, the logarithm is as for the positive but TOGETHER WITH THE SERRIED RANKS OF ODD IMAGINARY PIs. As the numbers rise, they get closer and closer towards zero, and the real part of the logarithm goes downwards towards minus infinity.

Then they hit zero. Those serried ranks of imaginary numbers STOP. That's it! They VANISH.

One would call this a SINGULARITY, but it is more than that. There are INFINITE odd imaginary multiples of Pi, and they ALL stop together at the point X=0.

So Nature again is REFUSING the imaginary.

Natural laws tend to flow smoothly throughout the number continuum. For an entire family of numbers - all odd imaginary multiples of Pi - and therefore by inference a whole SET - the set of all imaginary - to stop is quite unnatural.

So the imaginary numbers are the imaginings of Humankind. Nature does not imagine.

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Born in 1944, Charles Wehner is an electronics engineer, technical author and former factory manager.

Space Pollution

Author: K.A.Cassimally

I bet you haven’t ever wondered about pollution of space. Yes, man started polluting space ever since Yuri Gangarin (first man in space) saw Earth in its entirety.

Earth is not only orbited by satellites but also by paint particles, pieces of glass and even apparatus used by astronauts in the past. These may be small (that’s what we think – I mean maybe there’re not) but note that if ever a spanner were to hit an astronaut’s face shield, the latter would break down into fragments. The astronaut would, for his part, go straight up to heavens (or down in hell) and there would also be even more pollutants in space (the shield fragments).

Now, for those of you who have ever bothered to reflect upon space pollution, did you know that microscopic fragments also make up the space pollutant family? I didn’t until I read an article (link below) from The Guardian newspaper.

Anyway, where was I? Yeah, there are even more things out there that are considered as pollutants. I read about particles invisible to the human eye and undetectable by Earth radars. Best thing though: they have the explosive power of a bullet!!!

With more and more satellites, probes and men in space, no doubt that pollution is going to rise. We really have to prevent this. How? Till now, space pollution has not proved to be a major threat to us, inhabitants of the earth. So, naturally there does not appear to be any hurry to find a solution. NASA though has put a small probe in a swarm of space debris so as to know them better. But as I just said, nobody is really caring about space pollution right now although I should think that in some fifty years (ok, maybe I’m exaggerating), this may well transform into one of those many threats to life on Earth!

If you have read this column up till now and are still undisturbed about space pollution please make a final effort and read this final paragraph (my last attempt to pass the message)

Astronauts’ faeces are also (well in the past they were) released in space. Imagine me (a cool guy and proud guy) walking one hot day back home. All of a sudden, ‘splash’, I receive an astronaut’s faeces on top on my head!

Now that you are (finally) convinced about the main adverse effect of space pollution, read this article again and. Thrust me, you will be looking out at the sky and waiting for something to fall down, ‘Splash’!

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu :http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu

History Helped Shape The Future of Remote Viewing.

Author: Jonina Dourif

History Helped Shape The Future of Remote Viewing.

The public perception of Remote Viewing should not be dictated by opportunistic story tellers but the history needs to be recorded by the factual events and the actual people. It all began between the years of 1982 and 1983 while a prominent psychic who was working with a world-renowned physicist realized a breakthrough discovery in psychic phenomenon. The discovery was the existence of a set of protocols which could produce accurate psychically derived data on a consistent basis using only a trained mind and a stack of plain white paper. The psychic research project was initially funded by the CIA and then later picked up by the DIA. This was the military's competitive response to the alleged Soviet psychic warfare program during the cold war. Even though there was a hope for psychic performance, nobody really expected the results that were discovered and put into motion. The most astounding fact was that they (we) had proven that this new psychic technique could be taught like a language and anyone could learn it.

This was the beginning of something very substantial - a technology that turned psychically derived data from a happenstance gift into a skill that anyone could learn. And just like any other skill, personal performance improves with practice. For the first time in human history, this not only proved the existence of the sixth sense but forever changed what was possible to achieve with the human mind. And for those that actually practiced and mastered this new skill, they foresaw the opening of a completely new era of consciousness, a place where only a few would feel comfortable with the knowledge and even fewer would want to tread.

The discoverers named this new technology Coordinate Remote Viewing (CRV) and kept it a tightly held secret throughout the eighties. There were only five people initially trained and only two out of the five served in the Defense Intelligence Agency's (DIA) newly formed Remote Viewing unit. The other three left and did not continue to practice their new learned skill. However, two officers who were trained CRVers trained others and for a short time they enjoyed a working environment where CRV could strut its stuff - but it didn't last long. The coming of Desert Storm and the rotating fabric of the institutional umbrella of government caused this very curious top secret unit to become a revolving door where people were passed off for lack of assignments or to wait out their retirements.

By 1995 the unit had passed through the hands of a number of military and civilian administrators who, either for ego or just sheer ignorance, turned it into a psychic circus. They brought in tarot card readers and channelers to work with only one partially trained remote viewer who was left. Secretaries were being solicited to channel and street witches were performing readings. It's no wonder that this group lost its government funding and was picked back up as a research program by the CIA in the early nineties. This was the sketchy group that two civilian researchers were sent to evaluate and finally served in putting a final kibosh to with their ""1995 CIA/AIR Report."" It's surprising that the report was as positive as it was considering there were no remote viewers left. But they claimed that they were evaluating ""remote viewing"" and that ""the program"" had spanned throughout a twenty four year period of time. Unbeknownst to the two researchers, they had no access to the DIA's RV operational unit which had been utilizing the phenomenal breakthrough discovery for almost a decade.

In 1995, the CIA hired the most powerful publicity agency in the country to announce its grand declassification of their ""Remote Viewing program"". The reason they declassified their program at this time was because PSI TECH had launched a book deal and was about to go public with its Technology in a big way.

The CIA set up several interviews on national TV news shows and brought out one of their natural psychics and two researchers to tell the public that such an experimental psychic spy program did exist BUT that it could not be taught to others or scientifically proven. The CIA's declassification campaign was clever in that it used just enough truth wrapped around several mistruths and omitted the pivotal breakthrough discovery that ANYONE could be taught to do this.

PSI TECH had already been promulgating Remote Viewing information to the public since 1991 so the avid PSI seekers and special interest groups had already been privy to real information about ""the Remote Viewing Operational Unit"" from where PSI TECH had sprung. The 1995 CIA Campaign publicized the declassification of only ""their"" specific Remote Viewing research program. They did not address or mention the DIA's decade of the RV operational unit, nor PSI TECH's earlier release of this information. The CIA's Grand Publicity Campaign served only to confuse the issues and diminish the veracity of PSI TECH's mission. The CIA spin doctors old maneuver of trickery by omission was successful and they knew that good old competitive capitalism would finish the job for them.

During the resulting flurry of media attention, PSI TECH stood firmly behind its pre-released information. The stories raged and claims of people claiming to be ""military remote viewers"" began sprouting up like weeds everywhere. It became a marketing feeding frenzy and even people involved in the earlier research programs who have never done a formal remote viewing session, emerged as so-called ""Expert Remote Viewers."" Some of the periodic participants (and their friends) from the late days of the DIA's operational unit's revolving door became ""psychic warriors"" by writing books and doing seminars, and even the civilian administrators who were never trained cashed in by writing books and making creative remote viewing claims.

Now, there are annual conferences on the subject of Remote Viewing which bear little to no semblance of the breakthrough discovery of the technology. They present an array of psychics, channelers, spoon benders, dowsers, spiritual healers, astronauts, psychic researchers, UFOers, hypnotists, and former military administrators - all claiming to be ""remote viewers"" or ""remote viewing experts."" New phantom methods of RV have sprung up from unheard of schools and sources nobody ever heard of, represented as professionals at ""the Remote Viewing Conferences"".

The few of us who really practice this technology know its veracity, its pitfalls and its potential but we cannot constantly be on the campaign trail or we would have little time left to work as professional TRVers. Only 5 years ago the term 'remote viewing' brought up about 6 entries in internet search engines but today on Google 807,000 entries come up under 'Remote Viewing.' Amazing!

The question no longer is how many people will have access to this technology but rather how many people will be able to access 'real' training amid the swirling storms of deception and confusion. Already the prerequisite has become that a person have an intense desire to investigate by drudging through the weeds or they need to already be psychic or just plain lucky. One thing is for certain. After a person has been trained at PSI TECH, there is no longer a question what is myth, what is muddle and what is sheer madness.

PSI TECH was founded by one of the five people who was originally trained by the discoverer. This individual was transferred out of the DIA's RV unit in 1988. In 1989 while still on active duty in another department, he, along with a two star general, formed a private corporation utilizing Coordinate Remote Viewing, (which was still classified a top secret technology) as its main product. However, only the trained Remote Viewers were hired and worked for PSI TECH. One of the company's first projects was to locate Saddam's hidden biological weapons during Desert Storm.

In 1991, the founder retired from the military and PSI TECH was on its own as a private corporation whose goal was the same as the General who had helped usher it out the military. As the Chairman of this visionary new company, he felt that ""it was mankind's birthright to have access to this technology"" and thus, the mission of PSI TECH was born; ""To put this technology into as many hands as possible."" Coordinate Remote Viewing (CRV) was renamed Technical Remote Viewing (TRV) and in 1991 PSI TECH barged into the corporate sector with a new product that only a few individuals had ever heard of and even fewer could perform. PSI TECH was faced with the new reality of civilian commerce which resembled a war with unmarked enemies and no structure or rules. Operating a corporation was very different than operating in the military.

We have come a long way since those early days in the military, and we continue to forge ahead like the pioneers we need to be. TRV is real and it works. For the future of mankind it will play a role as significant as the invention of fire, changing the very face of consciousness. After a decade of real world experience training countless numbers of individuals via live classroom trainings and self-study videos, PSI TECH's new third generation TRV training technology has been merged with the power of the internet. Now, anyone who really wants to install this skill into their mind can do so, quickly and easily, anywhere and at any time. Who will be the pilgrim souls to pick up and carry the torch?

Learn more about Remote Viewing History here: http://www.psitech.net/news herealremoteviewinghistory.htm

About the author: A professional remote viewer, Jonina (Joni) Dourif was one of the first civilians trained in this formerly Top Secret technology. Joni was asked to commercialize PSI TECH and Technical Remote Viewing® for the civilian sector in 1993. In 1999, the company's founder retired and Joni took over the helm as President. She continues to lead PSI TECH into the future on the cutting edge of PSI and mind technology. http://www.jonidourif.com/

How strange! The sky is blue!

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Look up! Just do it. What do you see? Stupid question, eh? You see the ceiling of course. When you look upwards during a sunny day while picnicking however, you see the blue sky. Ever wondered why the sky is not green nor but blue?

Before answering this question, let’s go back to the basic physics of light. Sorry, but here I go…

Light is a kind of energy, which travels in waves. In fact, light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. Light forms only one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields called the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves travel through space at an amazing 300 00km/s. Therefore this is also the speed of light.

When you see white light from the bulb, you are actually seeing the seven colours of the rainbow! This is because white light consists of a combination of these seven colours.

Each of these colours has a different wavelength, frequency and energy. Wavelength is the distance between the crests of the waves. The frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. Note that the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency and the less energy it contains.

·Violet: Shortest wavelength, highest frequency and energy ·Red: Longest wavelength, lowest frequency and energy

Now back to our main topic. That blue colour of the sky is due to an effect known as the Rayleigh scattering. As light from the sun moves towards Earth’s atmosphere, not all the colours are actually able to pass through that atmosphere. Most of the longer wavelength colours do pass (red, orange and yellow for sure) but the shorter wavelength ones however are mostly absorbed by gas molecules found in the atmosphere. Absorbed blue light is then bounced back (radiated would be a better word) in all directions. This makes the shy to appear blue!

You would however ask me why it’s the blue rays, which get scattered, and not the indigo nor the violet rays (the other colours pass through the atmosphere remember – there’s also blue that pass through but it then gets scattered). Well in fact, the shorter the wavelength, the more the colour gets scattered. Violet, which has the shortest wavelength of all colours of the rainbow thus gets scattered more than blue rays do. Our eyes however are much more sensitive to blue than to violet and the sky therefore doesn’t appear to be violet but blue (in reality the sky is violet-indigo!).

Now do take the time making the following: Take a look at the horizon (if you’re at the seaside) and note the sky’s colour there. No, it’s not as blue as the rest of the sky, is it? It’s much paler. This is because for the blue light to reach your eye, it has to travel more. Blue light will thus pass through more air consequently getting scattered more. Conclusion: less blue light reaches your eyes than compared to blue light from just above you.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'.

Sunday, December 24, 2006

Straddling the Science/Magic Line: A Look At Magnetic Therapy

Author: Maya Talisman Frost

What's the difference between science and magic? It's our understanding of what makes something happen.

If magic is hocus-pocus, science is simply well understood hocus-pocus. Fire? Solar eclipse? Volcanic eruption? Earthquake? Once we can explain it, it becomes science. But sometimes we're stuck straddling that science/magic line.

Consider magnets.

Remember when you were a kid back in elementary school and you first discovered the wonder of magnets? What a thrill it was to explore the possibilities! There's nothing like messing with natural forces to spark a child's imagination.

Thirty five years later, I'm still fascinated by magnets. Magnetic therapy has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. Some believe that magnets help restore the flow of blood through the capillaries, therefore assisting in the flushing of toxins that may accumulate due to injury or illness. Magnets have been used to relieve the pain of arthritis, carpal tunnel, migraines, joint injuries, menstrual cramps, and much more. There has been some research in the last couple of years indicating that magnetic therapy may offer relief to those suffering from depression and attention deficit disorder.

Yet we're not sure how--or if--this really happens. It's got to be some kind of placebo effect, right? We're all looking for simple solutions to help us feel better. Sometimes we want things to work so much that they actually DO. Does that mean it's all a bunch of hooey?

I've learned a lot about magnets since my husband started developing and distributing Bodylinx, a line of inexpensive magnetic bracelets. Tom stated right from the beginning that he wanted to downplay the jewelry's possible health benefits. He likes the bracelets because they’re fun—you can play around with the magnetic links and rearrange them. Though he remains reluctant to promote a healing property he doesn’t really understand, some of his customers are strong advocates magnetic therapy.

We believe whatever we tell ourselves. If we want to think that a bracelet helps our arthritis, we are free to believe that. And if it turns out to be true, did it work because we believed it or because there is some kind of science/magic at work?

As important as it is to question our beliefs regularly, it's also crucial that we become willing to suspend disbelief. Fifty years ago, nobody would have believed that we'd have spacecraft landing on Mars and sending us digital images of the craters there. As a species, we have broken barrier after barrier by daring to believe the impossible one small idea at a time.

We need to accept that there may be therapies that work even if we can't prove they do or understand how it happens. This doesn't mean we have to be gullible or stop questioning. We simply need to entertain the possibility.

Whenever possible, I like a hefty dose of science to back up my beliefs. There is a magnetic field present on our planet. Fortunately, we don't often shoot out into space and have to deal with the physical effects of that. What about those who do?

Remember the early days of space exploration? We had to wait several hours after splashdown before the astronauts appeared at any press conferences.

It turns out that human bodies must be properly reintroduced to the earth's magnetic field. In recent years, the scientists at NASA have learned how to facilitate this physical readjustment. They now have the astronauts change into special suits embedded with magnets as soon as they land. They slip into their orange suits and voila--they're ready for the cameras!

There is a great deal we are learning about magnets, and it's not just to help those who've blasted off into space for a while. Magnetic wraps have been used for decades to help racehorses heal after injuries. There is plenty of anecdotal evidence from trainers to support the continued use of magnetic therapy for horses. Horses don't tend to say much about their beliefs, so it's hard to point to the placebo effect as a possible explanation.

The most compelling idea about magnetic therapy is that we may need it now more than ever. We used to walk barefoot in the forests and plains. We had direct contact with the earth as we slept, hunted, and harvested. We were surrounded by vegetation and natural rock formations.

Not anymore. We've built concrete sidewalks, roadways, foundations, and buildings. We travel in cars and trains, essentially encapsulating ourselves. We've created a world of barriers between the earth's natural forces and our bodies. It's reasonable to consider that this may be affecting us physically in ways that are difficult to diagnose.

The earth has so much to teach us. Sometimes we know what works long before we understand why it does so.

We've never questioned the fact that being surrounded by nature helps us feel soothed, refreshed, and invigorated. Scientific research now shows us more specifically how the earth helps us feel better. We benefit from the negative ions near the ocean, our brains respond to the binaural beats present near waterfalls or during rainstorms, and our bodies react positively to a restored connection to magnetic forces.

I'm not likely to latch onto the latest pharmaceuticals or tout the benefits of new-fangled remedies. But the old ones? There's no big company poised to reap huge rewards by promoting them, and consequently, we're not likely to hear about them on the evening news or be bombarded with television commercials praising their potent power. I always like supporting the underdog, and in this case, that underdog is backed up by plenty of science of the unprofitable kind.

We would do well to restore our connection to the earth and the powerful forces that help us maintain our health naturally. How wonderful that we can benefit from negative ions, binaural beats and magnetism without dealing with health insurance or spending a lot of money at the drugstore.

The next time you take a walk in the woods, stroll along the beach, or stretch out in a meadow, remember the magic of magnetism. Recapture the wonder you had as a child, and celebrate the fact that sometimes the simplest solutions are still the ones that fill us with awe.

About the author: Maya Talisman Frost is a mind masseuse. Her work has inspired thinkers in over 80 countries. To subscribe to her free weekly ezine, the Friday Mind Massage, visit http://www.massageyourmind.com. To learn more about Bodylinx magnetic bracelets, visit http://www.bodylinx.com.

The future of the Human Species - Part 1: Are we in danger?

Author: K.A.Cassimally

The sun, that celestial body which has always fascinated the human species, which differentiates night and day, which when angry, produces the fascinating auroras, is father to us all: humans, animals and plants. The sun is the father of life on Earth! But similarly to giving life, it will also take it away. This will be life’s doomsday. No way can we escape from this if we stay put.

How do we escape? Where do we take refuge? Where will we start all over again? These are the main questions. Ok, I admit! Earth is not going to be affected by the sun right now. This is true. But it was only an illustration I made! There are many other dangers waiting.

Forget about the sun taking life away for a minute and think of a simple piece of rock floating in space. Then suddenly, it decides to crash on Earth killing all its inhabitants. What do we do if an asteroid dives on us?

You may think that we have the required technology to avoid collision but I personally, am not so sure! To prove this let me inform you that only 90% of all these threatening objects are actually found by scientists. What about this other 10%? Nothing! No space agencies till now are trying to do anything. Do you think we are really prepared, now? Is life something we can play with?

Apart from asteroids, there are also other menacing-to-hit-Earth objects including comets. Remember the comet Shoemaker-Levy9? It wanted to obtain a better view of Jupiter. The result: engulfed by the planet that is, the comet simply crashed into Jupiter. This may happen to Earth too. If a comet were to hit Earth, it would be a real disaster. Extinction of life quasi-instantly! And humans for sure do not have the technology to avoid a comet impact.

If we do not want to be extinct, we will have to flee. We have to go elsewhere. But where? Where next?

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at BackWash.com where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: http://www.rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu http://www.backwash.com/content.php?id=358 Email: kcassimally@rcplastronomyclub.zik.mu