Tuesday, October 31, 2006

Help! It's Science Project Time!

Author: Caroline Burnside

If you are anything like how I used to be, you literally start panicking when your darling little ones come home from school and tell you they need a science project. With a bit of luck, they have given you some time to think of one. Or worse case scenario you have 24 hours!

A couple of years ago I was in this situation. My two darling twin boys both had science projects. Luckily, they gave me a few days notice.

It sure did put me into a panic. What with working fulltime, running a household and having to come up with two science projects and undertake them, really did put the pressure on. And it really didn't help that at school I was quite crap at science. I didn't even know the difference between a Bunsen burner and a beaker.

Well, the good news for all of you stressed out parents out there. I have a solution for you. One that has worked well for me for the last two years.

As I see it, there are three time-consuming areas when attempting a science project. They are searching for the right science project, searching for the ingredients and then doing the actual science project.

I've worked out a foolproof way to save time when it comes to finding the right project and assorted ingredients. But when it comes to actually doing the project, I'm afraid there's not much you can do to reduce the process. In order to find a project, you can spend some time on the web searching for a free one (quite time-consuming) or you can buy a book that gives you a whole lot of science projects that you can use for years to come. The best books mainly use household ingredients and have step-by-step instructions. I believe getting a book is the best option as you can use it for many years, thus saving lots of time, angst and money in the future.

Of course, there are books and there are books. It can be time consuming finding the right one, let alone having to spend the time picking it up from the shop.

So another time saver? Get a science project e-book. Download a book straight to your computer. Instantly. The good news is they are generally cheaper than a hard copy book.

From my research, there are four available. They vary in the amount of science projects available from 5 to 101.

My recommendation is buy the science fair projects book with the most experiments so that you can use them for more than one child over a long period of time. Also, try and get an e-book that sees them through all their school years.

If you are wondering, how do I find the right science projects e-book? The answer is there is a website available that clearly compares each one available.

The website is http://www.science-projects-review.com . With my knowledge, I have put all of the e-books into an easy to understand table with links to each e-book. The best thing is you can download these e-books immediately and start your experiment today. There is even a category to check which books mainly use household ingredients.

So if you want to save time and money, both today and in the future, check out these e-books now.

About the author: Caroline Burnside is a mother of two delightful boys and is a business analyst at a financial institution. Her hobbies include bike-riding, gardening and scapbooking.

The Impossible Machine

Author: Jim Henderson

There are a lot of complicated machines in the world today. Some are marvels of design and engineering. Only a few years ago, they would have seemed the stuff of science-fiction. Nothing invented today will be like the machine that I’m going to build.

I’m going to build a machine. It will be extremely complex, more than a television, or a VCR, or even a computer. This machine will be so complex that it will contain volumes of complicated information locked in a special code. Oh, and it operates itself, that’s right! It doesn’t need someone to “run” it.

What if I told you that it that it will be so smart that it can even repair and replace itself so it will never wear out? Even complicated machines wear out and have to be fixed. Even these machines don’t operate themselves. But mine will! Wouldn’t you like to have a car like that? Did I mention that it will even reproduce and replace itself. I mean it will create exact functional replicas of itself.

Sounds extremely difficult, doesn’t it? Maybe impossible is a better word. I’m still not finished telling you about my machine. This machine can “fuel” itself so it won’t need gasoline or batteries. It doesn’t run on nuclear power either.

It will be in some ways like a small city complete with it’s own transportation, manufacturing, even it own power plant. And laboratory, since it operates by complex chemical reactions, much too complex to even begin to describe here. With all this activity it will have to a waste disposal system too -- it cleans itself.

A amchine that could do all this would have to huge...wouldn’t it? So with all this, how big will it be? What if I said my machine will be miniature? So small, in fact, that it will be invisible...almost. Unless of course, you use a microscope, a very powerful one.

Impressed? You should be! By now you know that I can’t even begin to make this machine, even with all the technology today or in the next thousand years. So I’ll confess right now that I can’t make it, even if I wanted to. So it would be no way that it could just happen by accident? And I don’t feel bad that I can’t build it because neither can anyone else. Not even a team of scientists, engineers, and inventors.

Now let me say that I am not talking about science-fiction, I am talking about something that is very real. And it’s been around for thousands of years, too. It’s not really a machine, though because no machine will ever be able to be so complex and do so many things by itself. A machine, by comparison, is a crude and stupid device. But this is real. It’s called a “cell”. Your body is made up of literally billions of them, each functioning on it’s own without any instruction from you. They all work together with every other cell in the body to maintain and support life. They never go to class but you will have to if you want to begin to understand what little we actually know about them.

Maybe you were not aware that a cell was so much more wonderful than any machine made by man could ever be. And more complicated, too. More than any machine that could be built.

Which brings me to the question...Who did?

About the author: Jim Henderson is currently employed in the field of environmental regulatory compliance. He enjoys writing as a past time and has had several articles published in various on-line publications.

Monkey Ears

Author: Andrea Campbell

Just the other day I was talking to Ziggy, my Helping Hands capuchin monkey, and she looked at me quizzically and said, ""Huh? Speak up!""

I have been operating under the assumption that her eyesight and hearing was equal to or better than ours. What made me think that? Well, we live at the top of a hill and, as a result, cars coming up the steep incline can generally can be heard lowering into a heftier gear just before their approach. When K-9, our Dalmatian was alive, even though she was a bright dog, Ziggy used to bark the arrival of an approaching vehicle before K-9 did. Therefore, I’d just assumed that the monkey’s ears were keener. Now a new study comes out from some researchers at the Michigan State University telling me I’m wrong. That monkeys’ hearing is ""discernibly less acute than that of people for the frequency range in which human speech is expressed and heard."" In fact, the clinical truth of this has been known for a long time, but a fundamental explanation as to why has forever been lacking. Until now.

Physics is a field dealing with the properties and interactions of matter and energy. Currently, a new subfield of physics, biological physics is providing answers to questions such as why monkey ears, while so similar to our own, work differently. Michael Harrison, a Michigan State University physicist, has written a paper for the American Physical Society outlining, for the first time, his results explaining this phenomenon. And apparently size is the all important key.

To begin, Harrison tells us that we can think of our ears as holding pens for all matter of sound. Human ears register pure tones, which our brain eventually translates into meaningful sound such as speech or music, but the tones must fight their way through a lot of noise. The noise is created from the amount of air that is found inside the ear canal, under certain ambient air temperature. In other words, Harrison explains it like this: ""Air molecules are like people moving around in a crowded room at a cocktail party. The warmer it is, the more molecules—or cocktail guests—run around, and it creates noise. With this random noise, it’s harder to hear an individual conversation.""

The constant ambient air temperature is the physical mechanism which, in random fashion, creates sound waves that resonate within the air column leading to the eardrum. It follows then, that these incoherent sound waves create a ""resonant pressure"" on the eardrum, similar to what it is like when you hold a seashell to your ear and the sound waves bounce around. The resonant pressure fluctuates and increases the random firing of nerve cells in the auditory system. Transmitted from the auditory system to the brain, these random firings result in noise that masks or obscures a signal that contains speech or other useful information.

The smaller shape of the monkey’s ears means that the monkey is faced with a lot more ""seashell-type roar"" and noise than humans take in. ""So that’s what the average monkey is faced with—a lot more white noise is created in the little ear that blocks the outer ranges of sound. This also explains the historic bank of data that indicates that monkeys hear a smaller range of sounds than humans do.

So, in essence, my little Ziggy’s ears get a lot of ambient noise and those dumb looks in a chaotic setting can be written off to her diminished hearing, or, let’s say her not hearing at a comfortable level. ###

Andrea Campbell is the author of Bringing Up Ziggy: What Raising A Helping Hands Monkey Taught Me About Love, Commitment, and Sacrifice. She frequently writes about monkeys, forensic science, criminal justice, writing and parties….

About the author: Andrea Campbell is the author of eight books on a variety of subjects including forensic science, criminal law, and primatology.

Exploring the Universe with Dr. Norio Kaifu

Author: Gayle Olson

During 1998 we were fortunate to attend a dinner hosted by the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Hawaii, featuring a lecture by Dr. Norio Kaifu. Professor Kaifu is the director of the Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and has held the position as vice president of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) since 1997. A specialist in radio astronomy, infrared astronomy and interstellar matter, Dr. Kaifu has published some 100 papers on astronomy in addition to 15 popular science books. Before joining the Subaru in 1990, he was a director, a professor and an associate professor at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, and a senior research associate in the Faculty of Science at the University of Tokyo. As an amateur backyard astronomer we were delighted to learn of the possibilities this new telescope will bring to the exploration of universal knowledge.

Dr. Kaifu shared his views about the design of the new telescope, cylindrical in shape, rather than dome, it can be more optimal for wind resistance. The 8-meter diameter glass mirror is only 8 inches thick and has taken six years to construct and polish. The mirror is controlled by two Fujitsu parallel computers, with the largest memory capacity in the world with 261 supporting structures. 100 times per second the computer adjusts the mirror to counteract the atmospheric turbulence, which we see as twinkling stars. The mirror can be controlled by the computer by each second, to obtain the best view of the deeper universe. Mauna Kea was chosen as a location for the new Japanese telescope because of the stable weather and easy access.

What will the new telescope discover? Astronomer’s will be using the telescope to study the history of our galaxy and answer questions as to how life was created in the universe. New planets may be discovered, possibly including planets which support life. They will be looking as far as possible into deep space and looking back in time. Light from the most distant objects have been travelling for billions of years, they may even be able to catch sight of the end of the universe. The Subaru will be beneficial to the science of astronomy as all data will be shared with astronomers worldwide. The economic spinoffs and technology have greatly enhanced the Island of Hawaii.

Related Internet Resources

http://aloha.150m.com/noriokaifu.htm

About the author: Internet content developer and author since 1995.

Monkey Brains

Author: Andrea Campbell

You’re a primate, I’m a primate, monkeys are primates!

Even before the release of my book Bringing Up Ziggy, I was studying all aspects of primates. And I’m not alone. By observing the other levels of primate order in behavior and learning, we often discover many similarities between ourselves and our closest biological species.

Psychological researchers at Columbia University conducted tests showing that rhesus monkeys can decipher the difference between one, two and three. Now, Elizabeth M. Brannon, Ph.D. and Herbert S. Terrace, Ph.D., both psychologists at Columbia, designed experiments to discern whether monkeys could learn rules for putting objects into categories, and then apply those rules to a new set of objects.

Not so surprising to me, the scientists found that animals can not only be taught to count but actually understand the concept of numbers. The results of this new research was published in the January issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology.

For this particular study, researchers created computer displays with numbers one, two, three and four using visual objects such as circles, ellipses, squares or diamonds of varying size and color. Three monkeys were then taught to touch each display in numerical order, for example, using a two in ascending order, one in descending order.

Overtime, the monkeys were trained on some 35 different displays. Assessing their continued progress, the researchers then tested the monkeys on 150 new displays, only to find their performance did not falter.

In order to check their efforts, the scientists needed to determine whether the monkeys actually understood the relationship between the numbers. This time, the monkeys were tested using pairs of numbers they had never seen before--five, six, seven, eight and nine.

The results are quite illuminating as one who knows primates would think they should be. In the first round of testing with the higher numbers, both monkeys who had been trained to respond in ascending numerical order arranged the new numbers correctly 75 per cent of the time.

Later on, after tests where the answers were positively reinforced, all three monkeys responded correctly at a level above chance guessing.

Dr. Terrace says, ""The results of these experiments provide compelling evidence that number is a meaningful dimension for rhesus monkeys.""

It’s not unusual that tests such as these are also compared to the results of rats and children. In this case, the researchers pointed out that the monkeys were trained on the ordering skills for approximately six months. They also estimated that it took children learning numbers thousands of repetitions to master similar concepts.

The researchers also found several performance similarities between monkeys and people on comparable tasks. To explain, they say that monkeys are more accurate and quicker to order pairs of numbers the further apart the numbers are, in other words, ordering four and nine is easier than placing four and five for both humans and monkeys.

In my book I tell a story about how Paula, another foster mother for a Helping Hands monkey Emma, has taught her little charge to decipher colors. Paula used colored Easter eggs to help facilitate the process. Paula bought a set of big plastic eggs and put a treat inside a particular color, say, the blue egg. When she asked Emma to show her the blue egg, if the monkey was correct in her choice, she was allowed to procure the treat inside. Emma learned all of the primary colors in this way and even went on to learn to differentiate between a spoon, knife and fork.

Not too bad for a species we call a ""lessor"" primate!

Andrea Campbell lives with Ziggy, in Hot Springs Village, Arkansas. She is the author of BRINGING UP ZIGGY: What Raising A Helping Hands Monkey Taught Me About Love, Commitment, and Sacrifice. Visit her web site at: www.andreacampbell.com ###

About the author: Andrea Campbell lives in Hot Springs Village, Arkansas, in the Ouachita Mountains. Andrea is the author of eight books on a variety of subjects including criminal justice, the law, primatology and entertaining and parties... Her website is located at andreacampbell.com

Monday, October 30, 2006

Art From an Unlikely Artist

Author: Andrea Campbell

Art From an Unlikely Artist

Amanda makes good money for her art, hundreds of dollars on some pieces. Her particular style is strictly abstract and she exhibits some unorthodox mannerisms, but her work garners the attention of many. Sometimes the artist sleeps late and only paints once a week. If the inspiration strikes and she does not have her supplies though, she shows her frustration by spitting and acting out! Well, what would you expect from a 100-pound orangutan? Typically, her studio is littered with banana peels and other stuff lying around rotting, but she like to climbs up, up, up into a cargo net to greet visitors. Amanda lives at the Como Zoo in St. Paul, Minnesota. Her Como Zoo keeper, Mike Thell, says that the Sumatran/Bornean orangutan started painting in June as part of the zoo’s enrichment program. Animals in this zoo and others across the country, experience different incentive enhancements as well: there are the gorillas who have to maneuver their treats out of plastic bottles, a polar bear who has to scratch his way through a block of ice to get his fish, and lions who get to roll around in their favorite herbs and spices. Animal behavior experts have discovered that by supplying work for animals, whether that means foraging for food, navigating their terrain, or simply doing unlikely projects like Amanda, the animals fare better and exhibit a ""psychological well being.""

The intelligent, antsy Amanda just kind of took to painting after only a few demonstrations about what to do with the brush and paints from the less-talented humans around her. Because she thrives as a result of her painting, every so often bottles of nontoxic poster paint and thick sheets of paper are pushed up to her chain-link fence. Part of Amanda’s technique is to dip a fat paint brush into bright, primary colors and, after each thoughtful stroke on paper, she will cleanse the brush in her mouth! Blue is a favorite hue. Several minutes of inspired painting take place and then she hands her brush back to Thell, licks the excess paint with her pointed tongue, and its done. ""She usually gives it the tongue signature,"" Thell says. It does take some coaxing to get Amanda to part with her work, but she will eventually push her creation under the cage door for retrieval. She is further rewarded for her efforts with either orange juice or a box of Kool-Aid, which she receives for every painting she completes.

Amanda’s art debuted to the public at the zoo’s Primate Exhibit building last February. The opening exhibition produced over 400 people who came to bid on 22 of Amanda’s framed originals. The auction raised about $4,800 for the zoo. A piece of Amanda’s art entitled: ""Like the Weather"" took a hefty price, $360. And even though Amanda shares her cage with three other orangutans, she is, apparently, the only latent artist with drive and talent.

She is also not shy about demonstrating her skills to onlookers and likes the attention she gets as a result. Zoo spokeswoman Jennifer Lauerman says, ""She definitely knows what is going on."" And even though Amanda the orangutan artist doesn’t get the luxury of spending her funds, she would probably buy more bananas anyway.

Other animals too, have been taught to paint at various zoos around the country. Ruby, the elephant, has sold paintings for the Phoenix Zoo and one of her creations netted almost $3,000. The Marine Science Center in Clearwater, Florida, has shown some dolphin art and in 1992, one of the originals went for as much as $175. * * Ziggy, our soon-to-be twelve year old capuchin monkey loves artwork too, only she does not paint. I tried to introduce her to watercolor paints several times, but there was something about the brushes she could not get over. As a consequence, her favorite medium is chalk, with crayons taking a close second. She often decorates the sides of her cage, her toys, and a large, wooden hanging monkey with bright colors. In fact, I find chalk marks on almost any flat surface, including paper and unrequested mail.

If you would like to introduce your monkey to art, let them observe your actions more than a few times, supply non-toxic products, and as unobtrusively as possible, monitor their progress. For a reward, since boxed mixed drinks contain too much sugar, think about rewarding your budding artist with a tablespoon of low fat, low sugar yogurt in the lid or offer a couple of Jello cubes.

Andrea Campbell is the author of Bringing Up Ziggy: What Raising a Helping Hands Monkey Taught Me About Love, Commitment, and Sacrifice . See Andrea and Ziggy at their website at www.andreacampbell.com

###

About the author: Andrea Campbell is the author of eight books on a variety of topics. To find out more information about the author, check out her web site at: www.andreacampbell.com

Hawaii Volcanoes

Author: Gayle Olson

The Island of Hawaii is made up of five volcanoes. Each began to grow beneath the sea and eventually joined to form a single island. The volcanoes grew from a hotspot beneath the sea. The chain of volcanoes were created as the Pacific Plate moved northwestward over the hotspot. Kohala was the first to emerge from the sea followed by Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi. Activity has ceased at Kohala and now the most activity has been occurring at Kilauea and Loihi.

Loihi is still beneath sea level about 20 miles off the southeast flank of the island. A scientific team has installed underwater cable to Loihi. On October 12, 1997, the cable was laid and scientists discovered that Loihi was in full eruption. The communication cable provides a direct connection to Loihi. In the past, instrument experiments had to be dropped off at the seamount and later physically picked up by a submersible research vessel to recover the data.

What sort of results have scientists received from the communication cable? An underwater microphone called a hydrophone is sending back sounds of popping, booming and crashing. This may be the first real-time monitoring of an undersea eruption. Once the cable was installed and tested, scientists linked up the communication system to carry data first to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and then to Oahu where it is available for researchers.

Entire article and related Internet respources:

http://scienceforfamilies.allinfo-about.com/features/hawaiivolcan oes.html

About the author: Author and Internet Content Developer since 1995.

Fall Bird Migration

Author: Gayle Olson

Fall is the time of the year when many birds are busy preparing for the long journey to their winter homes. Migration is the movement of birds and other animals from one home to another. Some birds will fly thousands of miles to reach their winter homes!

Birds begin the journey to their winter homes before the food supply in the north runs out. Day length and temperature plays a part in triggering the birds' internal seasonal clocks. Shorter and cooler days means that the food supply is running out. When the water in ponds and lakes begin to freeze over, waterfowl cannot get at food easily and it is time to fly south where it is warmer and open water and food can be found.

In the fall birds begin to flock together getting ready for the big trip south. This is the time of the year when you will see flocks of blackbirds feeding on berries or the V-formation of flocks of geese in flight. It is an important time to build up strength and fuel up for the dangerous voyage.

Birds use fat as fuel for their journey. It is important that they have enough to eat before they leave so they are able to store enough fat for the long distance they must travel. Some birds make many stops, filling up with enough food to make it to the next stage of their journey.

Birds face many hazards during migration. Some may get blown off course or get caught in a storm. Some birds don't have enough food or fat stored to complete the trip. Hunters claim thousands of ducks and geese each year during fall hunting season. Changes in forestry, agriculture and urban expansion are difficult for birds. These changes affect the habitats of birds and other wildlife. Migrating birds depend on the forests and wetlands and sometimes cannot adapt to the changes.

Related Internet Resources:

http://scienceforfamilies.allinfo-about.com/features/birdmigratio n.html ----------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------

About the author: Author and Internet Content Developer since 1995.

New Generation of Anodizing

Author: Jerry L. Patel and Nannaji Saka, Ph.D.

1.0 Introduction The practice of anodizing, or controlled oxidation, of aluminum and aluminum alloys is more than seven decades old. The primary intent of anodizing aluminum and aluminum alloy parts is to protect the highly reactive surface against corrosion in aqueous environments, such as humid air and sea water. Because the anodic coating can be produced in a variety of colors, painted anodized parts are used in architectural applications. Furthermore, because the anodization process produces a hard ceramic coating, many times harder than that of the substrate from which it is formed, anodic coatings are also used to protect aluminum parts from abrasion, especially sand abrasion.

2.0 Traditional Anodizing Traditional anodizing is an electrochemical oxidation process. The part to be anodized is connected to the positive terminal of a Direct Current (DC) power source and a nonreactive metal, such as stainless steel, is connected to the negative terminal. The aluminum part, or the anode, and the stainless steel cathode are immersed in an electrolytic bath and a DC voltage is applied across them. The potential difference is of the order of 20 -100 V and the current densities are 1-10 A/dm2.

The electrolytic baths comprise aqueous solutions of chromic acid, orthophosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, oxalic acid, or combinations thereof. Because the electrolytic baths have appreciable resistivity and because the anodization process itself is exothermic the temperature of the electrolytic bath increases greatly during anodizing.

Since the anodizing process is quite sensitive to temperature, the bath temperature is controlled rather closely by heat exchanger or refrigeration equipment. Today's advanced anodizing technologies include several proprietary hard anodizing processes that employ a wide range of electrolyte compositions, operating conditions and a limited aluminum alloy compositions.

The type and thickness of coating obtained greatly depends on the composition of the electrolytic bath, operating conditions and alloy compositions. The military specification MIL-A-8625F, for example, lists at least six types and two classes of electrolytically formed anodic coatings on aluminum and aluminum alloys for non architectural applications.

Despite the many decades of experience and the expensive equipment employed by the traditional anodizing plants, the acid bath based DC anodizing process has severe limitations.

· By the very nature of the low voltage DC power employed, the anodic coating is quite porous. Often the volume percent of pores is as much as 50%. · Because of the low current densities employed, it takes many hours to produce a coating of a few tens of micrometers thick. · The electrolytic baths comprise extremely low pH acidic electrolytes and thus the process does not meet many of today's environmental regulations. The expensive equipment, such as the electric power supplies and heat exchanger, makes the process capital intensive. · The traditional process, for reasons not quite apparent, cannot be used for anodizing aluminum alloys containing high concentrations of Cu and Si. · Thus, many aerospace and automotive parts cannot be satisfactorily anodized, if at all. · The present process, while appropriate for a limited range of the wrought aluminum alloys, cannot be used for anodizing other reactive metals, such as Ti, Zr, Mg, etc., and intermetallic compounds and metal matrix composites. Thus, most of the promising aluminum based advanced alloys and composites cannot be protected by the traditional anodizing process. · Above all, the hardness of even the so called hard anodic coatings is far below the hardness of alpha alumina, the principal component of the anodic coating. Accordingly, the full strength potential of the anodic layer cannot be realized by the traditional process. · Indeed, the other potentially beneficial properties of aluminum oxide, such as the high thermal and electrical resistivities and the high dielectric breakdown strength are not even addressed.

This state of affairs is primarily due to the porosity of the coating produced by the traditional acid based electrolytic processes at low power levels, and to certain extent the poor bonding between the aluminum alloy substrate and the anodic layer.

3.0 The Microplasmic Process In recent years, the Microplasmic Corporation, a start up R&D company of Peabody, MA, U.S.A. has developed a unique anodizing technology, called the Microplasmic Process for all types of aluminum alloys. It is an electrochemical micro arc oxidation process for which a US patent is pending. A controlled high voltage AC power is applied to the aluminum part submerged in an electrolytic bath of proprietary composition. Due to the high voltage and high current, intense plasma is created by micro arcing at the specimen surface and this plasma in turn oxidizes the surface of the aluminum specimen. Thus the process is called Microplasmic Process. The oxide film is produced by subsurface oxidation and considerably thicker coatings can be produced.

Much as the traditional process, the Microplasmic process is an electrochemical process, but there ends the similarity. The Microplasmic process is radically different from the traditional anodizing processes in many respects. The distinguishing features of the process may be summarized as follows.

· The process employs alkaline electrolytes whose composition is extremely critical to the coating rate and the properties of the anodic film that is formed. The pH of the electrolyte is in the range 8 -12 and is thus environmentally sound. · The process employs Alternating Currents at high voltage and high current. Because of the high voltage, a microplasma surrounds the electrodes and the oxygen ions produced in the plasma diffuse through the anodic film into the aluminum substrate to react and form more anodic film. · The high voltage and high current allow the production of anodic films of the same thickness as that of the traditional process in a fraction of the time. · Because the voltages are higher than the breakdown voltage of the film formed, open channels are not necessary for sustaining the process and hence dense thick layers of nonporous film can be readily formed. · Because the process employs AC power, the productivity is increased. · The power from an electrical utility supply can be used with proper controls to the electrochemical tank thus making the process less capital intensive. There is no need for power rectification and waveform smoothing. · The temperature of the electrolytic bath need not be precisely maintained. Indeed, successful coatings can be obtained even if the temperature excursions are as much as 10-20 oC, further simplifying the process. · The electrolytic composition itself is quite variable for different types of coatings. · Because of the high density of the coating, practically there is no change in the dimension of the anodized part, and a completely finished part can be coated without major post processing finishing operations. The Microplasmic Process, however, produces an outer soft coating of about 15% that may be buffed off; the remaining inner layer, is an extremely hard ceramic layer. · Above all, unlike with the traditional anodization process, aluminum alloy parts of any composition can be successfully anodized by the Microplasmic Process. Even more importantly, a variety of ceramic ""alloy"" coatings, such as Al2O3.SiO2, Al2O3.MgO, Al2O3..CaO etc. can only be produced by the Microplasmic Process. · The Microplasmic Process is also suited for a hard coating inside surface of a part i.e. cylindrical, conical or spherical hollow parts. Many coating processes in the market, like CVD, PVD, IVD, PEPVD, Sputtering, Thermal Spraying etc. are unable to coat inside surface of a long part.

4.0 Applications

Because the microplasmic process produces a thick, well bonded ceramic coating on a variety of reactive light metal alloys, it can be used for a broad range of applications. The primary application could be the replacement of heavier metallic alloys or the more expensive composite materials required by the aerospace and automotive industries by light metals (e.g., Al, Ti, Mg, and their alloys) coated by the Microplasmic Process. Other applications can be divided into the following categories: Chemical, Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical and Electronics, and combinations of these.

· Chemical: The ceramic coating can resist both aqueous and moderately high temperature and is resistant to strong acids and bases. Thus it can be used in chemical, and food processing industries. · Mechanical: The hardness of the film is over 1300 kg/mm2 and thus the film can be used to resist sliding, abrasive and erosive wear. In addition the friction coefficient is low and thus can be used in marginally lubricated systems. · Thermal: The thermal conductivity of the anodic film is much less than of metals. Thus anodized parts can be used to maintain uniform distribution of temperature and resist thermal shock. · Electrical and Electronic: The dielectric breakdown strength of the Microplasmic film is comparable to that of alpha Al2O3 and hence can be used as an insulating film on electrical and electronic components.

Additionally, the Microplasmic Process is also well suited for hard coating interior surfaces (such as those of hollow cylindrical and conical parts), recesses, blind holes, threaded sections, and so on.

Many coating processes in the market, such as Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), Plasma Enhanced Physical Vapor Deposition (PEPVD), Sputtering, Thermal Spraying, etc. are unable to coat the inside surface of a long part. Thus, where appropriate these expensive coating processes can be readily replaced by the Microplasmic Process.

Microplasmic Corporation

Contact Information: Microplasmic Corporation 17 Esquire Drive Peabody, MA, USA Tel (978) 531-9145 Fax (978) 531-3671 Email: info@microplasmic.com Company Website http://www.microplasmic.com/ Public Relations Website http://www.microarcanodizing.com/

About the author: Jerry Patel: BS degree Mechanical Engineering - Fairleigh Dickinson University MS degree Engineering Management - Northeastern University Nannaji Saka, Ph.D: BS - Mechanical Engineering - Andhra University in India MS - Metallurgical Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology PH.D - Materials Engineering from - Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT.

Why Tarot Readings Work

Author: tarotwithlove.com

Many people may view Tarot cards as a pointless pastime or play thing of certain ""new age"" dabblers or ""crazy psychics"", but the truth is, the images and concepts imbedded in the Tarot are ancient expressions of deeply ingrained human archetypes. As such, the cards can be very useful in exploring the subconscious mind, its hidden fears and desires, and its suppressed potentials.

What is an archetype? The Swiss psychologist Carl Jung used the term ""archetype"" to refer to the generalized patterns of images that form the world of human representations, through which humans relate to their outer reality. Representations of archetypes can be seen in all cultures throughout history. Since archetypes are rooted in the collective unconscious, they may be brought to the surface through the ""psychic"" activity of individuals who are in tune with their intuition, the bridge to the unconscious mind. This is literally a bridge to what some scientists are now calling ""implicit reality"", where everything exists in a state of chaos as one. In order to perceive reality as a solid stream of time and space, humans require a set of archetypes, or symbols, to guide their awareness. This is why the same archetypes, many of which are contained in the Tarot, can be found repeating in numerous works of cultural creation throughout the world and throughout history.

The first modern psychologist to recognize the potential of the Tarot in exploring the far regions of the unconscious was Carl Jung. In fact, during a Tarot reading, the client, with the assistance of the reader, discusses possible meanings of the symbols in specific cards and relates those meanings to the client's problem in much the same way as psychotherapists conduct dream analysis.

Jung was first drawn to the Tarot when he noticed the images contained within ""descended from the archetypes of transformation"". Many of these archetypes can be seen in Jung's ""individuation process"", which is a representation of the natural psychological maturation of the human being. The Tarot also contains symbols representing other important archetypes of the transformative processes, including the Self, the sacrifice, the hero, rebirth and the mother. A typical Tarot reading can be compared to a chaos model of therapy in that it can help induce in the reader a period of psychic instability by stimulating the imagination via the archetypal symbols in the Tarot.

Chaos Theory

Modern chaos theory was formulated to explain complex systems with many interrelated components as well as dynamic systems. Such complex systems, especially living systems, are known as dissipative structures. This is because such structures dissipate energy as they interact with their environment. In the case of living systems, this allows the process of growth to occur. Ilya Prigogine, who won the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1977 for his work in dissipative structures, noted that dissipative systems are systems that are able to maintain cohesion only because they are able to open to flows of energy, matter or information from their environments.

How does the Tarot work into this? Well, besides our body being a dissipative system, our psyches are as well. Our ""ego complex"", the part of ourselves with which we identify, is only a part of our psyche. Jung looked at the psyche as a self-regulating system that maintains itself in the same manner that the body does. Dreams are one way in which the psyche regulates itself, by bringing rise to suppressed unconscious energies and allowing them to dissipate. The Tarot is another way we can bring our unconscious energies to the surface.

History of the Tarot

The Tarot has been called the oldest book in the world. Legend has it that the cards came from a book called The Book of Toth. Toth was depicted in ancient Egypt as the ibis-headed god of wisdom and knowledge. He is said to have helped with the founding of Egypt, and to have given humanity mathematics, engineering, medicine, astrology and language, among other things. When the Egyptian empire began to fall several thousand years after its inception, Thoth intervened. To keep the knowledge and wisdom that he had passed to humanity alive, he summarized it on a series of 22 tablets. This was done using symbols instead of words, so that anyone could read it. These tablets came to be known as The Book of Thoth, and it is said that a roving people later known as the gypsies copied these symbols onto cards.

Whatever the origin of the Tarot deck, one thing is certain: the images correspond well with known human archetypes, and the cards have been used for centuries not just for divinization and fortune telling, but for serious psychological growth. Many a skeptic has tried their hand at a Tarot reading, only to be genuinely shocked at the accuracy and quality of information provided to them, and there is no doubt that many more skeptics will continue to be convinced of the power of the Tarot as it becomes increasingly popular throughout the world.

About the author: This article is from www.TarotwithLove.com where you can learn more about the Tarot or get your own highly accurate heart-centered Tarot Reading.

Sunday, October 29, 2006

Cool Camouflage

Author: Gayle Olson

Camouflage comes from the French word camouflager which means to ""blind or veil"". Some insects and animals use camouflage as an effective way to protect themselves from natural enemies. Birds, bats, moles, frogs and other animals consider some insects to be a very tasty treat. Insects protect themselves in many ways, one of these ways is by disguising themselves so that they blend into their surroundings. Some caterpillars and walkingstick insects are camouflaged to look like twigs. Some insects are patterned to look like the background where they live, they may look like the bark of a tree, the leaves of a plant, some even look like soil!

Sometimes harmless insects look ferocious, frightening their enemies. One example is the hickory horned devil. This large caterpillar scares away its enemies by its appearance. Mimicry is when insects fool their enemies by looking like an insect that is dangerous or bad tasting. A hornet fly has the markings of a hornet, but has no stinger. Predators who have had their mouths stung by a hornet do not try to eat hornets again, nor do they try to catch the hornet fly!

Related Internet Resources:

http://scienceforfamilies.allinfo-about.com/features/coolcamoufla ge.html

About the author: Author and Internet Content Developer since 1995.

Hurricane Fact Sheet

Author: Gayle Olson

Hurricane Fact Sheet

A hurricane is a large whirling storm that usually measures 200 to 500 miles (320 to 800 km) across.

On the average each year, six Atlantic hurricanes occur.

Sustained winds of 100-150 mph (160-240 km/h) occur with a typical hurricane. Some winds may exceed 200 mph (320 km/h).

The eye of the hurricane averages 14-25 miles (22-40 km) across. The eye is quite calm as compared to the winds in the eye wall.

The winds of the hurricane spin in a counterclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

In the North Atlantic hurricane season is from June 1 to November 30. Over the Western Pacific, the typical cyclone season is never quite over.

If the heat released by an average hurricane in one day could be converted to electricity, it could supply the United States' electrical needs for about six months.

The heat energy released in a single day can equal the energy released by the fusion of four hundred 20-megaton hydrogen bombs.

As it travels across the ocean, a hurricane may pick up as much as two billion tons of water each day through evaporation and sea spray.

Some two million metric tons of air are circulated in, up and out of the hurricane each second.

Related Internet resources:

http://scienceforfamilies.allinfo-about.com/features/hurricanes.h tml

About the author: Author and Internet Content Developer since 1995.

WILL THE UNIVERSE COMMIT SUICIDE?

Author: ARTHUR ZULU

Author: Arthur Zulu Contact Author: mailto: controversialwriter@yahoo.com Copyright: Copyright © Arthur Zulu 2002 Word Count: 606 Web Address: http://www.1stbooks.com/bookview/10975

Publishing Guidelines: Permission is granted to publish this article electronically or in print as long as the bylines are included. A courtesy copy of your publication would be appreciated.

WILL THE UNIVERSE COMMIT SUICIDE?

By Arthur Zulu

Once upon a time, there lived a madman who wanted to die a horrible death. He thought of two options for the final exit. Option one: Make a gigantic camp fire hotter than the sun and jump into it. Option two: Dive into a sub zero degree ice and bury himself with glacier. Either of the choices seemed appealing to him.

But hold on, before you think that this is a folk story from Mars. The story may soon play out, say some school of thought, who believe it is the world’s fate.

Only that the characterization is wrong. Because the madman is not the human race but the universe. And mankind has no choice. The universe will decide which is a better choice--fire or ice. Either choice is period for life.

How did we come to have such destiny?

It is because of how the universe started, they say. And how did the universe begin?

Scientists believe that in the beginning, space was one small dense point. Then suddenly this singularity expanded at a terrifying speed, spewing out gigantic stars and galaxies, and has continued to race to Heaven knows only where, ever after.

As to how life eventually began, well, this is biology made easy. Out of this non-living world, someday a micro-organism sprang out of one warm chemical soup in the ocean. And by some kind of clever maneuvering, yielded the abundant variety of living species today, including man. Interesting story.

Now, it does not matter whether you believe this story or not. Or whether you even fully understand. In fact you are not supposed to understand it. So, the ignorant you are, the better.

You know that these things happened billions of years ago. And in those times, before man learnt to write, things happened spontaneously. Just like that, without any outside help.

They are not called miracles because scientists don’t live in a world of miracles. Call one the Big Bang, and the other, Evolution. That would suffice.

The scientists are, therefore, saying that the world would end just the why it began. In this case it may either be a bang, or murmur.

Take the first scenario -- the inflation theory. If the universe began by expansion, and has since been stretching out, the believe is that someday, the universe will stretch itself out. And by that time, gases sustaining it would have been sucked out, and the universe will grow dark, cold and unbearable.

The man on earth will not find it funny. Without sun, the vegetation will die, and man starving from hunger and air, unused to such conditions, will start dropping dead, leaving the dogs to keep watch.

But they would not even be able to play the watchdog for hey would follow their masters soon. Maybe a few polar animals used to surviving in sub zero temperatures may tarry for a while. And follow later.

The second scenario is the deflation theory. Some imagine that one day, the universe will stop its expansion to outer space, and race back to where it began -- collapse on itself!

Now, imagine all the billion stars and galaxies colliding unto themselves, and try to figure out how big the fire will be. The fiery furnace will just lick the earth’s water in nanoseconds, and life will vanish in the great conflagration.

So, life may go either way say scientists -- what a frightening prospect! And it will happen on the day that the natural forces decide to go mad. And when the universe goes bonkers, not even our planet can save us.

In fact, stars have been exploding and colliding with one another in bizarre space, and no news is made of it. And that is because no lives are involved. But on the day that the earth will freeze or explode in fire, there will be funeral songs and the death drums would sound.

There are funerals, though, when there are survivors. On this day, however, there will be no survivors to compose elegies, or sound funeral drums.

Take comfort though. That day may be long in coming.

Copyright © 2002, all rights reserved

About the Author:

ARTHUR ZULU, The Most Controversial Writer in the World, is the author of the best - selling book, HOW TO WRITE A BEST-SELLER. Download your copy and FREE excerpt at : http://www.1stbooks.com/bookview/10975. For FREE writing helps, mailto : controversialwriter@yahoo.com

About the author: ARTHUR ZULU, The Most Controversial Writer in the World, is the author of the best – selling book, HOW TO WRITE A BEST-SELLER.

Saturday, October 28, 2006

CAN ASTEROIDS DESTROY THE WORLD?

Author: ARTHUR ZULU

Title: CAN ASTEROIDS DESTROY THE WORLD? Author: Arthur Zulu Contact Author: mailto: controversialwriter@yahoo.com Copyright: Copyright © Arthur Zulu 2002 Word Count: 504 Web Address: http://www.1stbooks.com/bookview/10975

Publishing Guidelines: Permission is granted to publish this article electronically or in print as long as the bylines are included. A courtesy copy of your publication would be appreciated.

CAN ASTEROIDS DESTROY THE WORLD?

By Arthur Zulu

“So, one day little Gulliver went to Brobdingnag, the country of giants”; the teacher was telling the students. “Suddenly it began to rain and a huge hailstone struck him, and he disappeared to the ground.” The children stared at their teacher in wonderment.” Each time he wanted to rise up,” continued the teacher,” more hailstones sent him down. This continued till Glumdalclitch, his keeper discovered him and dug him out.” End of story. The relieved students laughed.

That ‘s not a laughing matter. For that scenario some say, will soon be a possibility for the earth and its inhabitants. That means that soon we and our children would be having to duck, not hailstones, but on-coming comets from outer space. But when Asteroids -- the giants ones, come calling, then the play is over.

Dinosaurs know it is not a plaything when gigantic asteroids hit the earth. Of course they are not around now to tell us the story. Geologists are, however, on hand to point out huge craters dug by falling meteors. There is one in Arizona for sightseers.

Now, asteroids don’t just dig craters. The one that hit Tunguska, Siberia ignited the forests and decimated the wild life. But that’s just a tip of the iceberg.

Let’s get on a more serious note. A suicidal asteroid could turn the earth to cinders minutes after the blast. Or, knock the earth into several pieces leaving each part to orbit to oblivion. And a benevolent one could wipe out whole cities, or nations, or continents.

The universe is a terrible place. Although there is order in the galactic formation, there are millions of periodic and non-periodic comets out there. You could tell when Halley’s comet would come, but you cannot be sure of comet Hale-Bopp.

Thank Heavens for the atmosphere. Thousands of earth- bound comets have perished there, leaving occasional flares and ashes to tell the story. But one day, one of the several wondering comets could catch us napping. Not even the best scientific wonder could stop it. One passed dangerously close the other day, and exited before anyone could say “Our Father!”

Planet earth may not be all-time lucky. It may have the fate of Jupiter. When comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit it, Jupiter as not knocked out of orbit, nor was it smitten to the finest particles. But two earths could comfortably fit into one of the mighty wounds of Jupiter resulting from the blow. And come to think of it. Only a few pieces of the comet hit Jupiter!

Now, suppose Shoe-maker had hit earth?

Do not shudder at that because it may be that one Kamikaze asteroid is racing toward earth at a million times the speed of light as you read this. So if we had been ducking smaller comets, we have to get set for the show down. Because even before we could get our telescopes to get a closer look, the killer comet would have done its worst. Time out!

Copyright © 2002, all rights reserved

About the Author:

ARTHUR ZULU, The Most Controversial Writer in the World, is the author of the best - selling book, HOW TO WRITE A BEST-SELLER. Download your copy and FREE excerpt at : http://www.1stbooks.com/bookview/10975. For FREE writing helps, mailto : controversialwriter@yahoo.com

About the author: ARTHUR ZULU, The Most Controversial Writer in the World, is the author of the best - selling book, HOW TO WRITE A BEST-SELLER.

ARE SPACE ALIENS COMING TO DESTROY US?

Author: ARTHUR ZULU

Title: ARE SPACE ALIENS COMING TO DESTROY US?

Author: Arthur Zulu Contact Author: mailto: controversialwriter@yahoo.com Copyright: Copyright © Arthur Zulu 2002 Word Count: 504 Web Address: http://www.1stbooks.com/bookview/10975

Publishing Guidelines: Permission is granted to publish this article electronically or in print as long as the bylines are included. A courtesy copy of your publication would be appreciated.

ARE SPACE ALIENS COMING TO DESTROY US?

By Arthur Zulu

The cinema hall was packed full. The audience cheered and laughed at the show. Well, for one thing, it was fiction for they know that such thing is impossible in real life. After all, here they are, seated without any invading men from space.

But wait a minute. Space invaders? Yes, call them ET’s, little green men, or any other name. That cinema show may be for real. Because some people believe that one fateful day, extraterrestrials will seize the earth.

Come to think of it. In the history of civilization when has the nations not been at each other’s throat? From the ancient to modern times. And with sophisticated weapons. In the end, some nations have been wiped out, while others have emerged. Show me Babylon. Show me Carthage. Or show me Songhai.

So what makes you think that some blood-thirsty space men are not desperately searching for us. To make prisoners. Keep as pets. Or destroy!

That is a chilling thing. As chilling as the crusades. Or the Jihads. Or the world wars. Or the war against the terrorists.

Now, just in case you think that the earth is the only place where living creatures are playing around, you had better think twice. For there could be life out there in Mars. Or Europa, Jupiter’s moon. Or elsewhere for that matter.

Why shouldn’t there be? The Milky Way alone has about 100 billion stars. Imagine that number. How can anyone think that the only lucky number is earth. Could there not be more winning tickets? Perhaps one?

And suppose we work on the ratio of one earth for one Galaxy. What about the other 100 billion galaxies in the universe? Could there not be at least ten more earths?

Well, that’s a reasonable assumption. Unless you are selfish. And don’t forget that we are working on the 1% of observable universe. There could be billions of universes with their billions and billions of stars!

Now, we are used to water and light as favorable conditions to life on earth. And on this basis we think that no life can exist outside these conditions. Because perhaps water has not been found elsewhere, and the harsh space may be inhospitable to life.

But we forget that the air we breathe is not the same as what plants inhale. Also we live on land, while the fish live in water, as the birds fly in the air. Yet we are all living things.

Now, suppose those conditions not favorable for us are the very ones that favor ET’s out there in Alpha Centuari or some damned star. Suppose they are even so advanced that they can tame the stars and planets for habitation just as we can tame the earth. Suppose they have advanced beyond nuclear physics and do not need rockets to travel? Or suppose they are this moment combing the multi-universes looking for us? Or suppose they have even come without our knowing it, and are preparing to come and melt the earth?

Well, space watching has always been an interesting past time. Man has been watching the stars and the birds. Until now.

Doomsayers have now added to the list-- space invaders. A lot of time and money has already gone into this space-watching business. They are optimistic that ET’s would come someday. Some are swearing that they have even seen the advance party of these invaders.

So you may have a chance of seeing one, or of getting a signal, if you have a telescope and plenty of time. Otherwise, you could ignore the whole thing and get about your business.

But when suddenly you see that the sun could not give its light, because it has been covered by a space ship twice its size, (just in case they decide to check us out with their baby ship), know that the final hour has come!

Copyright © 2002, all rights reserved

About the Author:

ARTHUR ZULU, The Most Controversial Writer in the World, is the author of the best - selling book, HOW TO WRITE A BEST-SELLER. Download your copy and FREE excerpt at : http:// www.1stbooks.com/bookview/10975. For FREE writing helps, mailto : controversialwriter@yahoo.com

About the author: ARTHUR ZULU, The Most Controversial Writer in the World, is the author of the best - selling book, HOW TO WRITE A BEST-SELLER.

CAUTION!qURA'AN IS NOT JUST A BOOK .....READ TO LEARN THE MIRACLES OF QURA'AN

Author: Harun yahya

THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR'AN

INTRODUCTION Fourteen centuries ago, God sent down the Qur'an to mankind as a book of guidance. He called upon people to be guided to the truth by adhering to this book. From the day of its revelation to the day of judgement, this last divine book will remain the sole guide for humanity. The matchless style of the Qur'an and the superior wisdom in it are definite evidence that it is the word of God. In addition, the Qur'an has many miraculous attributes proving that it is a revelation from God. One of these attributes is the fact that a number of scientific truths that we have only been able to uncover by the technology of the 20th century were stated in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago. Of course the Qur'an is not a book of science. However, many scientific facts that are expressed in an extremely concise and profound manner in its verses have only been discovered with the technology of the 20th century. These facts could not have been known at the time of the Qur'an's revelation, and this is still more proof that the Qur'an is the word of God. In order to understand the scientific miracle of the Qur'an, we must first take a look at the level of science at the time when this holy book was revealed. In the 7th century, when the Qur'an was revealed, Arab society had many superstitious and groundless beliefs where scientific issues were concerned. Lacking the technology to examine the universe and nature, these early Arabs believed in legends inherited from past generations. They supposed, for example, that mountains supported the sky above. They believed that the earth was flat and that there were high mountains at its both ends. It was thought that these mountains were pillars that kept the vault of heaven high above. However all these superstitious beliefs of Arab society were eliminated with the Qur'an. In Sura Sad, verse 2, it was said: ""God is He who raised up the heavens without any support..."" (The Qur'an, 13:2). This verse invalidated the belief that the sky remains above because of the mountains. In many other subjects, important facts were revealed at a time when no one could have known them. The Qur'an, which was revealed at a time when people knew very little about astronomy, physics, or biology, contains key facts on a variety of subjects such as the creation of the universe, the creation of the human being, the structure of the atmosphere, and the delicate balances that make life on earth possible. Now, let us look at some of these scientific miracles revealed in the Qur'an together. THE COMING OF THE UNIVERSE INTO EXISTENCE The origin of the universe is described in the Qur'an in the following verse: He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. (The Qur'an, 6:101) This information given in the Qur'an is in full agreement with the findings of contemporary science. The conclusion that astrophysics has reached today is that the entire universe, together with the dimensions of matter and time, came into existence as a result of a great explosion that occurred in no time. This event, known as ""The Big Bang"" proved that the universe was created from nothingness as the result of the explosion of a single point. Modern scientific circles are in agreement that the Big Bang is the only rational and provable explanation of the beginning of the universe and of how the universe came into being. Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as matter. From a condition of non-existence in which neither matter, nor energy, nor even time existed, and which can only be described metaphysically, matter, energy, and time were all created. This fact, only recently discovered by modern physics, was announced to us in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.

THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE In the Qur'an, which was revealed 14 centuries ago at a time when the science of astronomy was still primitive, the expansion of the universe was described like this: And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it. (The Qur'an, 51:47) The word ""heaven"", as stated in this verse, is used in various places in the Qur'an with the meaning of space and universe. Here again, the word is used with this meaning. In other words, in the Qur'an it is revealed that the universe ""expands"". And this is the very conclusion that science has reached today. Until the dawn of the 20th century, the only view prevailing in the world of science was that ""the universe has a constant nature and it has existed since infinite time"". The research, observations, and calculations carried out by means of modern technology, however, have revealed that the universe in fact had a beginning, and that it constantly ""expands"". At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian physicist Alexander Friedmann and the Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre theoretically calculated that the universe is in constant motion and that it is expanding. This fact was proved also by observational data in 1929. While observing the sky with a telescope, Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer, discovered that the stars and galaxies were constantly moving away from each other. A universe where everything constantly moves away from everything else implied a constantly expanding universe. The observations carried out in the following years verified that the universe is constantly expanding. This fact was explained in the Qur'an when that was still unknown to anyone. This is because the Qur'an is the word of God, the Creator, and the Ruler of the entire universe.

THE SPLITTING ASUNDER OF ""THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH"" Another verse about the creation of the heavens is as follows: Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder, and We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? (The Qur'an, 21:30) The word ratq translated as ""sewn to"" means ""mixed in each, blended"" in Arabic dictionaries. It is used to refer to two different substances that make up a whole. The phrase ""we unstitched"" is the verb fataqa in Arabic and implies that something comes into being by tearing apart or destroying the structure of ratq. The sprouting of a seed from the soil is one of the actions to which this verb is applied. Let us take a look at the verse again with this knowledge in mind. In the verse, sky and earth are at first subject to the status of ratq. They are separated (fataqa) with one coming out of the other. Intriguingly, when we remember the first moments of the Big Bang, we see that a single point included all the matter in the universe. In other words, everything, including ""the heavens and earth"" which were not created yet, were included in this point in a condition of ratq. This point exploded violently, causing its matter to fataqa and in the process created the structure of the whole universe. When we compare the expressions in the verse with scientific findings, we see that they are in perfect agreement with each other. Interestingly enough, these findings were not arrived at until the 20th century. ORBITS While referring to the Sun and the Moon in the Qur'an, it is emphasized that each moves in a definite orbit. It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along, each in an orbit. (The Qur'an, 21:33) It is mentioned in another verse, too, that the Sun is not static but moves in a definite orbit: And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (The Qur'an, 36:38) These facts communicated in the Qur'an have been discovered by astronomical observations in our age. According to the calculations of experts on astronomy, the Sun is traveling at the enormous speed of 720,000 kilometers an hour in the direction of the star Vega in a particular orbit called the Solar Apex. This means that the sun travels roughly 17,280,000 kilometers a day. Along with the Sun, and all planets and satellites within the gravitational system of the Sun also travel the same distance. In addition, all the stars in the universe are in a similar planned motion. That the entire universe is full of paths and orbits such as this one, is written in the Qur'an as follows: By the sky full of paths and orbits. (The Qur'an, 51:7) There are about 200 billion galaxies in the universe, consisting of nearly 200 billion stars in each. Most of these stars have planets, and most of those planets have satellites. All of these heavenly bodies move in very precisely computed orbits. For millions of years, each has been ""swimming"" along in its own orbit in perfect harmony and order with all the others. Moreover, many comets also move along in the orbits determined for them. The orbits in the universe do not only belong to celestial bodies. The galaxies also travel at enormous speeds in computed, planned orbits. During these movements, none of these celestial bodies cuts across another's path, or collides with another. Surely at the time the Qur'an was revealed, mankind did not possess today's telescopes or advanced observation technologies to observe millions of kilometres of space, nor the modern knowledge of physics or astronomy. Therefore, at that time, it was not possible to determine scientifically that space is ""full of paths and orbits"" as stated in the verse. However, this was openly declared to us in the Qur'an that was revealed at that time:–because the Qur'an is the word of God.

About the author: The author, who writes under the pen-name HARUN YAHYA, was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. http://www.harunyahya.com

Friday, October 27, 2006

CAUTION! QURA'AN IS NOT JUST A BOOK .....READ TO LEARN THE MIRACLES OF QURA'AN part2

Author: Harun yahya

THE ROUNDNESS OF THE EARTH He has created the Heavens and the Earth for Truth. He wraps the night up in the day, and wraps the day up in the night. (The Qur'an, 39:5)

In the Qur'an, the words used for describing the universe are quite remarkable. The Arabic word that is translated as ""to wrap"" in the above verse is ""takwir"". In English, it means ""to make one thing lap over another, folded up as a garment that is laid away"". (For instance, in Arabic dictionaries this word is used for the action of wrapping one thing around another, in the way that a turban is put on.) The information given in the verse about the day and the night wrapping each other up includes accurate information about the shape of the world. This can be true only if the earth is round. This means that in the Qur'an, which was revealed in the 7th century, the roundness of the world was hinted at. It should be remembered, however, that the understanding of astronomy of the time perceived the world differently. It was then thought that the world was a flat plane and all scientific calculations and explanations were based on this belief. The verses of the Qur'an, however, include information that we have learned only in the past century. Since the Qur'an is God's word, the most correct words were used in it when it comes to describing the universe.

THE PROTECTED ROOF In the Qur'an, God calls our attention to a very interesting attribute of the sky: We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs.. (The Qur'an, 21:32) This attribute of the sky has been proved by scientific research carried out in the 20th century. The atmosphere surrounding the earth serves crucial functions for the continuity of life. While destroying many meteors big and small as they approach the earth, it prevents them from falling to earth and harming living things. In addition, the atmosphere filters the light rays coming from space that are harmful to living things. Interestingly, the atmosphere lets only harmless and useful rays– visible light, near ultraviolet light, and radio waves pass through. All of this radiation is vital for life. Near ultraviolet rays, which are only partially let in by the atmosphere, are very important for the photosynthesis of plants and for the survival of all living beings. The majority of the intense ultraviolet rays emitted from the sun are filtered out by the ozone layer of the atmosphere and only a limited–and essential–part of the ultraviolet spectrum reaches the Earth. The protective function of the atmosphere does not end here. The atmosphere also protects the earth from the freezing cold of the space, which is about minus 270oC. It is not only the atmosphere that protects the Earth from harmful effects. In addition to the atmosphere, the Van Allen Belt, a layer caused by the magnetic field of the Earth, also serves as a shield against the harmful radiation that threatens our planet. This radiation, which is constantly emitted by the Sun and other stars, is deadly to living things. If the Van Allen belt did not exist, the massive outbursts of energy called solar flares that frequently occur in the Sun would destroy all life on Earth. Dr. Hugh Ross has this to say on the importance of Van Allen Belts to our lives:

In fact, the Earth has the highest density of any of the planets in our Solar System. This large nickel-iron core is responsible for our large magnetic field. This magnetic field produces the Van-Allen radiation shield, which protects the Earth from radiation bombardment. If this shield were not present, life would not be possible on the Earth. The only other rocky planet to have any magnetic field is Mercury - but its field strength is 100 times less than the Earth's. Even Venus, our sister planet, has no magnetic field. The Van-Allen radiation shield is a design unique to the Earth.1

The energy transmitted in just one of these bursts detected in recent years was calculated to be equivalent to 100 billion atomic bombs similar to the one dropped on Hiroshima. Fifty-eight hours after the burst, it was observed that the magnetic needles of compasses displayed unusual movement and 250 kilometers above the earth's atmosphere, the temperature suddenly increased to 2,500o C. In short, a perfect system is at work high above the Earth. It surrounds our world and protects it against external threats. Scientists only learned about it recently, yet centuries ago, God informed us in the Qur'an of the world's atmosphere functioning as a protective shield

About the author: The author, who writes under the pen-name HARUN YAHYA, was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. http://www.harunyahya.com

Increasing Applications of Micro Bubbles

Author: Ken Yap

There have been a lot of research studies on micro bubbles in recent years.

Micro bubbles are miniature gas bubbles of less than 50 microns diameter in water. The micro bubbles, which mostly contain oxygen or air, can remain suspended in the water for an extended period. Gradually, the gas within the micro bubbles dissolves into the water and the bubbles disappear. These bubbles are generated by various types of aerators now available in the market.

These micro bubbles, being of extremely small size, are characterized by having electrical charges. They attract suspended floating particles very effectively. This particular property has been used in sludge treatment by using the micro bubbles to capture and float organic matters, thus decreasing the time required for the sludge treatment.

Micro bubbles have also been introduced by the Japanese to market safe and good tasting oysters. Micro bubbles of concentrated oxygen containing about 2% ozone can be used to inactivate norovirus in shellfish and oysters. This norovirus is one of the major pathogens causing food poisoning in winter. This is a much more cost effective method compared to cultivating the oysters in sterile seawater and using chlorine-based germicide.

Another emergent usage of micro bubbles is in the areas of cancer treatment. Scientists are in the process of developing a method of diagnosing cancer lesions by injecting micro bubbles into the blood stream. During the ultrasonic scan for cancer lesions, the micro bubbles contract and expand rapidly due to the pressures produced by the ultrasonic beam. Groups of the micro bubbles at cancerous tumours will show up very visibly on ultrasonic scans to indicate the presence of cancerous cells.

Due to their large surface area volume ratio, micro bubbles can penetrate deeply into a surface for effective cleaning. This cleaning effect of micro bubbles is used in cleaning the inside of vegetables such as cabbage and radish sprout, as well as maintenance of freshness with vegetables in one particular vegetable processing center in Japan.

On a more personal level, the micro bubbles can penetrate deeply into skin for a good scrub without the need for any shampoo or soap. This skin treatment has been introduced within some spas in Japan as well as shops specializing in bathing pets. Needless to say, the baths are especially helpful for pets which have skin allergies to pet shampoos.

Suwa companies are also developing a small handy micro bubble generator which can be used at home. With all the product development going on, very soon, you may be able to purchase a micro bubble generator at your electronics store and relax in a micro bubble bath at home.

About the author: Author Ken Yap is a director of Suwa Precision Engineering Pte Ltd in Singapore which represents

deep drawn metal stamping ,

swiss screw machining , miniature pcb, and miniature gears manufacturers from Suwa, Japan.

CAUTION! QURA'AN IS NOT JUST A BOOK .....READ TO LEARN THE MIRACLES OF QURA'AN part3

Author: Harun yahya

THE FUNCTION OF MOUNTAINS The Qur'an draws attention to a very important geological function of mountains. We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would not move under them… (The Qur'an, 21:31) As we have noticed, it is stated in the verse that mountains have the function of preventing shocks in the Earth. This fact was not known by anyone at the time the Qur'an was revealed. It was in fact brought to light only recently as a result of the findings of modern geology. According to these findings, mountains emerge as a result of the movements and collisions of massive plates forming the Earth's crust. When two plates collide, the stronger one slides under the other, the one on the top bends and forms heights and mountains. The layer beneath proceeds under the ground and makes a deep extension downward. That means that mountains have a portion stretching downwards, as large as their visible parts on the Earth. In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows: Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeper into the mantle.4 In a verse, this role of the mountains is pointed out by a comparison with ""pegs"": Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs? (The Qur'an, 78:6-7) Mountains, in other words, clench the plates in the Earth's crust together by extending above and beneath the Earth's surface at the conjunction points of these plates. In this way, they fix the Earth's crust, and prevent it from drifting over the magma stratum or among its plates. Briefly, we may liken mountains to nails that keep pieces of wood together. This fixing function of the mountains is described in scientific literature by the term ""isostasy"". Isostasy means the following: Isostasy: general equilibrium in the Earth's crust maintained by a yielding flow of rock material beneath the surface under gravitational stress.5 This vital role of mountains, that was discovered by modern geology and seismic research, was revealed in the Qur'an centuries ago as an example of the supreme wisdom in God's creation. We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would not move under them... (The Qur'an, 21:31)

THE MOVEMENT OF MOUNTAINS In one verse, we are informed that mountains are not motionless as they seem, but are in constant motion. You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past like clouds. (The Qur'an, 27:88) This motion of the mountains is caused by the movement of the Earth's crust that they are located on. The Earth's crust 'floats' over the mantle layer, which is denser. It was at the beginning of the 20th century when, for the first time in history, a German scientist by the name of Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents of the earth had been attached together when it first formed, but then drifted in different directions, and thus separated as they moved away from each other. Geologists understood that that Wegener was right only in the 1980s, 50 years after his death. As Wegener pointed out in an article published in 1915, the land masses on the earth were joined together about 500 million years ago. As Wegener pointed out in a 1915 article, the land masses of the earth were joined together some 500 million years ago, and this large mass, called Pangaea, was located in the South Pole. Approximately 180 million years ago, Pangaea divided into two parts, which drifted in different directions. One of these giant continents was Gondwana, which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. The second one was Laurasia, which included Europe, North America and Asia, except for India. Over the next 150 million years following this separation, Gondwana and Laurasia divided into smaller parts. These continents that emerged after the split of Pangaea have been constantly moving on the Earth's surface at several centimetres per year, in the meantime changing the sea and land ratios of the Earth. Discovered as a result of the geological research carried out at the beginning of the 20th century, this movement of the Earth's crust is explained by scientists as follows:

The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle, with a thickness of about 100 kms., are divided into segments called plates. There are six major plates, and several small ones. According to the theory called plate tectonics, these plates move about on Earth, carrying continents and ocean floor with them. Continental motion has been measured at from 1-5 cm per year. As the plates continue to move about, this will produce a slow change in Earth's geography. Each year, for instance, the Atlantic Ocean becomes slightly wider.6

There is a very important point to be stated here: God has referred to the motion of mountains as a drifting action in the verse. Today, modern scientists also use the term ""Continental Drift"" for this motion. 7 Unquestionably, it is one of the miracles of the Qur'an that this scientific fact, which has recently been discovered by science, was announced in the Qur'an.

About the author: The author, who writes under the pen-name HARUN YAHYA, was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. http://www.harunyahya.com

CAUTION! QURA'AN IS NOT JUST A BOOK .....READ TO LEARN THE MIRACLES OF QURA'AN part4

Author: Harun yahya

THE MIRACLE IN THE IRON Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Qur'an. In Sura Hadid, meaning Iron, we are informed: …And We sent down iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind.... (The Qur'an, 57:25) The word ""sent down,"" particularly used for iron in the verse, could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain that iron has been given to benefit people. But when we take into consideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, ""being physically sent down from the sky"", we realize that this verse implies a very significant scientific miracle. This is because modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the iron found in our world has come from the giant stars in outer space. The heavy metals in the universe are produced in the nuclei of big stars. Our solar system, however, does not possess a suitable structure for producing iron on its own. Iron can only be produced in much bigger stars than the Sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it, and eventually it explodes in what is called a ""nova"" or a ""supernova"". As a result of this explosion, meteors containing iron are scattered around the universe, and they move through the void until attracted by the gravitational force of a celestial body. All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried from exploding stars in space via meteors, and was ""sent down to earth"", in exactly the same way as stated in the verse: It is clear that this fact could not have been scientifically known in the 7th century, when the Qur'an was revealed.

THE PAIRS IN CREATION Glory be to Him Who created all the pairs: from what the earth produces and from themselves and from things unknown to them. (The Qur'an, 36:36) Although the concept of ''pair'' or ""couple"" commonly stands for male and female, the statement of ''from things unknown to them'' has wider implications. Today, one of the implications of the verse has been revealed. The British scientist Paul Dirac, who proposed that matter is created in pairs, was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1933. This discovery, called ''parité'', maintains that matter is paired with its opposite: anti-matter. Anti-matter carries the opposite properties to matter. For instance, as opposed to matter, the electron of anti-matter is positively charged and its protons are negatively charged. This fact is stated in a scientific source in this way: ...every particle has its antiparticle of opposite charge… …and the uncertainty relation tells us that pair creation and pair annihilation happen in the vacuum at all times, in all places.8

About the author: The author, who writes under the pen-name HARUN YAHYA, was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. http://www.harunyahya.com

Thursday, October 26, 2006

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Professor Emeritus

Author: Professor Emeritus

Dr. Moore was a former President of the Canadian Association of Anatomists, and of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists. He was honoured by the Canadian Association of Anatomists with the prestigious J.C.B. Grant Award and in 1994 he received the Honoured Member Award of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists ""for outstanding contributions to the field of clinical anatomy.""

""For the past three years, I have worked with the Embryology Committee of King cAbdulazîz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, helping them to interpret the many statements in the Qur'ân and Sunnah referring to human reproduction and prenatal development. At first I was astonished by the accuracy of the statements that were recorded in the 7th century AD, before the science of embryology was established. Although I was aware of the glorious history of Muslim scientists in the 10th century AD, and some of their contributions to Medicine, I knew nothing about the religious facts and beliefs contained in the Qur'ân and Sunnah.""[2]

At a conference in Cairo he presented a research paper and stated:

""It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Qur'ân about human development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah, because most of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God, or Allah."" [1]

Professor Moore also stated that:

""...Because the staging of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Qur'ân and Sunnah. The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge.

""The intensive studies of the Qur'ân and Hadîth in the last four years have revealed a system of classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the seventh century A.D... the descriptions in the Qur'ân cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the seventh century...""

About the author: Professor Emeritus, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Toronto. Distinguished embryologist and the author of several medical textbooks, including Clinically Oriented Anatomy (3rd Edition) and The Developing Human (5th Edition, with T.V.N. Persaud).

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-T.V.N. Persaud

Author: -T.V.N. Persaud

Author and editor of over 20 books, and has published over 181 scientific papers. Co-author of The Developing Human (5th Edition, with Keith L. Moore). He received the J.C.B. Grant Award in 1991. Professor Peraud presented several research papers.

""It seems to me that Muhammad was a very ordinary man, he couldn't read, didn't know how to write, in fact he was an illiterate...

We're talking about 1400 years ago, you have some illiterate person making profound statements that are amazingly accurate, of a scientific nature...

I personally can't see how this could be mere chance, there are too many accuracies and like Dr. Moore, I have no difficulty in my mind reconciling that this is a divine inspiration or revelation which lead him to these statements.""

About the author: Professor of Anatomy, and Professor of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-E. Marshall Johnson

Author: E. Marshall Johnson

Author of over 200 publications. Former President of the Teratology Society among other accomplishments. Professor Johnson began to take an interest in the scientific signs in the Qur'ân at the 7th Saudi Medical Conference (1982), when a special committee was formed to investigate scientific signs in the Qur'ân and Hadîth. At first, Professor Johnson refused to accept the existence of such verses in the Qur'ân and Hadîth. But after a dicussuion with Sheikh Zindanî he took an interest and concentrated his research on the internal as well as external development of the fetus.

""...in summary, the Qur'ân describes not only the development of external form, but emphasises also the internal stages, the stages inside the embryo, of its creation and development, emphasising major events recognised by contemporary science.""

""As a scientist, I can only deal with things which I can specifically see. I can understand embryology and developmental biology. I can understand the words that are translated to me from the Qur'ân. As I gave the example before, if I were to transpose myself into that era, knowing what I do today and describing things, I could not describe the things that were described...

I see no evidence to refute the concept that this individual Muhammad had to be developing this information from some place... so I see nothing here in conflict with the concept that divine intervention was involved in what he was able to write...""

About the author: Professor and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, and Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

CAUTION! QURA'AN IS NOT JUST A BOOK .....READ TO LEARN THE MIRACLES OF QURA'AN part6

Author: Harun yahya

THE PROPORTION OF RAIN One of the items of information given in the Qur'an about rain is that it is sent down to Earth in due measure. This is mentioned in Sura Zukhruf as follows; It is He who sends down water in due measure from the sky by which We bring a dead land back to life. That is how you too will be raised (from the dead). (The Qur'an, 43:11) This measured quantity in rain has again been discovered by modern research. It is estimated that in one second, approximately 16 million tons of water evaporates from the Earth. This figure amounts to 513 trillion tons of water in one year. This number is equal to the amount of rain that falls on the Earth in a year. This means that water continuously circulates in a balanced cycle, in a ""measure"". Life on Earth depends on this water cycle. Even if people used all the available technology in the world, they would not be able to reproduce this cycle artificially. Even a minor deviation in this equilibrium would very soon give rise to a major ecological imbalance that would bring about the end of life on Earth. Yet, this never happens, and rain keeps falling every year in exactly the same quantity just as revealed in the Qur'an.

THE FORMATION OF RAIN How rain forms remained a great mystery for a long time. Only after weather radar was invented was it possible to discover the stages by which rain is formed. According to this, the formation of rain takes place in three stages. First, the ""raw material"" of rain rises up into the air with the wind. Later, clouds are formed, and finally raindrops appear. The Qur'an's account of the formation of rain refers exactly to this process. In one verse, this formation is described in this way: It is God Who sends the winds which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark clumps and you see the rain come pouring out from the middle of them. When He makes it fall on those of His slaves He wills, they rejoice. (The Qur'an, 30:48) Now, let us examine these three stages outlined in the verse more technically.

FIRST STAGE: "" It is God Who sends the winds..."" Countless air bubbles formed by the foaming of the oceans continuously burst and cause water particles to be ejected towards the sky. These particles, which are rich in salt, are then carried away by winds and rise upward in the atmosphere. These particles, which are called aerosols, function as water traps, and form cloud drops by collecting around the water vapour themselves, which rises from the seas as tiny droplets.

SECOND STAGE: "".... which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark clumps..."" The clouds are formed from water vapour that condenses around the salt crystals or dust particles in the air. Because the water droplets in these clouds are very small (with a diameter between 0.01 and 0.02 mm), the clouds are suspended in the air, and spread across the sky. Thus, the sky is covered in clouds.

THIRD STAGE: ""…and you see the rain come pouring our from the middle of them"" The water particles that surround salt crystals and dust particles thicken and form raindrops, so, drops that become heavier than the air leave the clouds and start to fall to the ground as rain. As we have seen, every stage in the formation of rain is related in the verses of the Qur'an. Furthermore, these stages are explained in exactly the right sequence. Just as with many other natural phenomena on the Earth, God gives the most correct explanation of this phenomenon as well, and made it known to people in the Qur'an centuries before it was discovered. In another verse, the following information is given about the formation of rain: Have you not seen how God drives along the clouds, then joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come out of it? And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) with cold hail in them, striking with it anyone He wills and averting it from anyone He wills. The brightness of His lightning almost blinds the sight. (The Qur'an, 24:43) Scientists studying cloud types came across surprising results regarding the formation of rain clouds. Rain clouds are formed and shaped according to definite systems and stages. The formation stages of cumulonimbus, one kind of rain cloud, are these:

1.STAGE, Being driven along: Clouds are carried along, that is, they are driven along, by the wind. 2.STAGE, Joining: Then, small clouds (cumulus clouds) driven along by the wind join together, forming a larger cloud.9 3.STAGE, Stacking: When the small clouds join together, updrafts within the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the centre of the cloud are stronger than those near the edges. These updrafts cause the cloud body to grow vertically, so the cloud is stacked up. This vertical growth causes the cloud body to stretch into cooler regions of the atmosphere, where drops of water and hail formulate and begin to grow larger and larger. When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for the updrafts to support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain, hail, etc.10 We must remember that meteorologists have only recently come to know these details of cloud formation, structure and function, by using advanced equipment like planes, satellites, computers etc. It is evident that God has given us a piece of information that could not have been known 1,400 years ago.

About the author: The author, who writes under the pen-name HARUN YAHYA, was born in Ankara in 1956. He studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, the author has published many books on political, faith-related and scientific issues. http://www.harunyahya.com