Wednesday, May 31, 2006

The Science of Robosapien

Author: Rob Sullivan

At a glance, Robosapien looks great versus the old school box on wheels with clear dome head. 'Ooh,' you say, looks kinda like a muscled storm trooper and the fart button now that's a hoot. We nod in polite agreement, but behind your back, we snicker at your total lack of appreciation of the advanced robotic theory involved.

Robosapien is a modern day turning point in the evolution of robotics and is the first-ever robot based on the science of applied biomorphic robotics. (That's what you should have been telling friends and family all this time rather than pointing out amusing cat-chasing ability.) Biomorphic robotics stems from Mark Tilden's innovative new concepts in BEAM technology.

A New Philosophy for Robot Kind BEAM is an acronym for Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics and Mechanics. Dr. Mark W. Tilden founded this relatively new branch of robotic sciences in 1989, based on the premise that behavioral-rich robots need not be the wickedly complex projects reserved only for well-funded labs and cartoon villains.

Put another way, traditional approaches to creating robots have started with creating a sophisticated brain to maneuver the mechanics of the body. Though not discounting the incredible engineering feats of robots built this way, most notably the Sony Qrio and Honda Asimo, Mark Tilden strongly contends that this is the wrong approach to take.

It's like trying to emulate a human when modern technology and research can't realistically copy a bug from your garden. ""[It's] an evolutionary dead end,"" says Tilden. BEAM robotics is about taking the bottom-up approach, to start from mastering the simple bug and moving up from there.

Rather than attempt to create a centralized robo-brain to process every variable input and spit out a decision (much, much harder than you may think), why not use a system known as ""subsumption architecture.'' Subsumption architecture is a clever technique where the actions of a robot are managed in layers, each layer controlling one facet of the robot's operation.

For example, a low-level layer could be 'Walk Forward,' which the robot will happily do until it bumps into something. At this point, the slightly higher level 'Lift Leg Higher' kicks in, overriding the 'Walk Forward' layer until the robot successfully climbs over the obstacle, at which point 'Lift Leg Higher' stops, and the low-level 'Walk Forward' takes over again. *

Egocentric Bugs

So Tilden began building robot bugs on this principle, and more selfish creatures they could not have been.

Why's that? Well Tilden decided that Asimov's famous Three Laws of Robotics: 1. No hurt human. 2. Listen to human unless told 'Do hurt human'. 3. Try to live with that. were antiquated notions that left no room for a good practical joke at parties.

So one dark and stormy night he penned Tilden's Three Laws of Robotics: 1. A robot must protect its existence at all costs. 2. A robot must obtain and maintain access to a power source. 3. A robot must continually search for better power sources. informally known as*: 1. Protect thy butt. 2. Feed thy butt. 3. Move thy butt to better real estate. 1. He justified this robotic declaration of self-interest as the only way robots can start evolving the way humans may have came from guppies looking for a good time by leaving the ocean.

From Bugs to Sapiens

Needing to find a lighter-minded group of people from his government and NASA days, Tilden decided to go and join a toy company. Who better than one audacious enough to self proclaim themselves, Wow Wee! It was a great match, and they gleefully began working on toy dinosaurs and bugs based on Tilden's now renowned expertise.

Then came the master project that one could fairly say would change the landscape of robotics altogether. FartDude, later named Robosapien after initial market testing, was to be the culmination of Tilden's work, finally bringing to bear a humanoid (sapien-like, if you will) robot capable of an impressive list of moves and rude sounds.

In Robosapien, you see the basics of BEAM philosophy and technological research. It follows the B as a biomorphic rendition of humans, E for the fact you can't throw it in a bathtub, A because it's stylin the latest magazine covers, and one heck of a lot of M going into the robo dancing capability.

That's Mr. Sapien

Like no robot ever before, the Robosapien is affordable to the unwashed masses. The Robosapien is a crowning accomplishment when it comes to mobility, power consumption, programmability, and maybe most importantly: hackability.

Each arm has full 360 motion ability allowed by the, ahem, biomorphic shoulder joints and flexible elbows. Ending in three articulated fingers, Robosapien is capable of picking up, gripping, and throwing objects. The genuine full walking motion (most robots don't genuinely walk outside a lab) is made possible design of the large feet and well placed sensors.

And do you know how much power it usually takes to run a robot Fuggedabowdit. Regular robots are dishonorable little battery-eaters always hungry for more, more, more! And who's going to pay for these batteries, hmmm' Well Robosapien brings no shame to itself when consuming power, essentially due to the astounding mechanical physics. It runs a full 6 to 10 hours on just one set of batteries. In fact, if you move Robosapien's arm you'll actually generate power for it! Hey man, that's shrewd.

For those of you who want a robot that will fetch you a frosty one from the kitchen, you lazy bums will just have to wait until later versions. But you can program your Robosapien to do some pretty cools things in the meantime, like wander around taking swings at things, guarding your bedroom while you sleep, and a hilarious game of 'pull my finger'. Try teaching your dog that trick smart guy.

So what's so hot about the hackability, and is that even a word you ask? You've got some nerve. Tilden went through some serious, serious effort to be sure that robot enthusiasts could take apart the robot, as he would have done as a child, and tinker with modifications. Everything's color-coded in there to make things easy for those of us without PhDs, and by all accounts, there's plenty of additional room and power to accommodate whatever Frankenstein thing you can think up. There are entire books written on the subject should you wish to learn, so go forth and hack away. If it's a good one, send it in and we'll publish for all too either mock or applaud.

And Another Thing

So the next time you look at your Robosapien give a respectful nod to the world's first-ever robot based on the science of applied biomorphic robotics. Then go chase a cat with it.

* Graciously lifted from Dr. Tilden's excellent 'Junkbots, Bugbots & Bots on Wheels' book.

About the author: This article was created by RobonetiX with support from Mr. Sapien himself. Please feel free to reproduce this article. All reproductions of this article must provide an html link pointing to

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Durja Rao

Author: Durja Rao

Sheikh Zindanî presented to Prof. Rao many verses dealing with his area of specialisation, and asked: ""What do you think of the existence of the scientific information in the Qur'ân? How could Prophet Muhammad have known about these facts fourteen centuries ago?""

""It is difficult to imagine that this type of knowledge was existing at that time, around 1400 years back. May be some of the things they have simple idea about, but to describe those things in great detail is very difficult. So this is definitely not simple human knowledge. A normal human being cannot explain this phenomenon in that much detail. So, I thought the information must have come from a supernatural source.""

""I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scriptures of the Holy Qur'ân, and I have no way of knowing where they would have come from. But I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages.""

And when he was asked about the source of the Qur'ân, he replied, ""Well, I would think it must be the divine being.""

""That is a difficult question which I have been thinking about since our discussion here. I am impressed at how remarkably some of the ancient writings seem to correspond to modern and recent Astronomy. I am not a sufficient scholar of human history to project myself completely and reliably into the circumstances that 1400 years ago would have prevailed.

Certainly, I would like to leave it at that, that what we have seen is remarkable, it may or may not admit of scientific explanation, there may well have to be something beyond what we understand as ordinary human experience to account for the writings that we have seen.""

""I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in Qur'ân, and for us modern astronomers have been studying very small piece of the universe. We have concentrated our efforts for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the whole universe. So by reading Qur'ân and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.""

About the author: Professor of Marine Geology teaching at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Professor Armstrong

Author: Professor Armstrong

Prof. Armstrong was asked a number of questions about Qur'ânic verses dealing with his field of specialisation. He was eventually asked, ""You have seen and discovered for yourself the true nature of modern Astronomy by means of modern equipment, rockets, and satellites developed by man. You have also seen how the same facts were mentioned by the Qur'an fourteen centuries ago. So what is your opinion?""

""That is a difficult question which I have been thinking about since our discussion here. I am impressed at how remarkably some of the ancient writings seem to correspond to modern and recent Astronomy. I am not a sufficient scholar of human history to project myself completely and reliably into the circumstances that 1400 years ago would have prevailed.

Certainly, I would like to leave it at that, that what we have seen is remarkable, it may or may not admit of scientific explanation, there may well have to be something beyond what we understand as ordinary human experience to account for the writings that we have seen.""

""I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in Qur'ân, and for us modern astronomers have been studying very small piece of the universe. We have concentrated our efforts for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the whole universe. So by reading Qur'ân and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.""

About the author: Professor Armstrong works for NASA and is also Professor of Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Alfred Kroner

Author: Alfred Kroner

Professor Kroner is one of the world's most famous geologists, becoming well known among his colleague scientists for his criticisms against the theories of some of the major scientists in his field. Sheikh cAbdul-Majeed A. Zindanî met with him and presented several Qur'ânic verses and Hadîth which he studied and commented upon.

""Thinking where Muhammad came from... I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years with very complicated and advanced technological methods that this is the case.""

""Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics 1400 years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out from his own mind for instance that the earth and the heavens had the same origin, or many others of the questions that we have discussed here...

If you combine all these and you combine all these statements that are being made in the Qur'ân in terms that relate to the earth and the formation of the earth and science in general, you can basically say that statements made there in many ways are true, they can now be confirmed by scientific methods, and in a way, you can say that the Qur'ân is a simple science text book for the simple man. And that many of the statements made in there at that time could not be proven, but that modern scientific methods are now in a position to prove what Muhammad said 1400 years ago.""

About the author: Professor of the Department of Geosciences, University of Mainz, Germany.

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-William Hay

Author: William Hay

Professor Hay is one of the best known marine scientists in the USA. Sheikh cAbdul-Majeed A. Zindanî met with him and asked him many questions about the marine surface, the divider between upper and lower sea, and about the ocean floor and marine geology.

""I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scriptures of the Holy Qur'ân, and I have no way of knowing where they would have come from. But I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages.""

And when he was asked about the source of the Qur'ân, he replied, ""Well, I would think it must be the divine being.""

""That is a difficult question which I have been thinking about since our discussion here. I am impressed at how remarkably some of the ancient writings seem to correspond to modern and recent Astronomy. I am not a sufficient scholar of human history to project myself completely and reliably into the circumstances that 1400 years ago would have prevailed.

Certainly, I would like to leave it at that, that what we have seen is remarkable, it may or may not admit of scientific explanation, there may well have to be something beyond what we understand as ordinary human experience to account for the writings that we have seen.""

""I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in Qur'ân, and for us modern astronomers have been studying very small piece of the universe. We have concentrated our efforts for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the whole universe. So by reading Qur'ân and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.""

About the author: Professor of Oceanogprahy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Tuesday, May 30, 2006

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Tejatat Tejasen

Author: Tejatat Tejasen

Professor Tejasen studied various articles concerning the Qur'ân and modern embryology. He spent four days with several scholars, Muslims and non-Muslims, discussing this phenomenon in the Qur'ân and Hadîth. During the 8th Saudi Medical Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia he stood up and said:

""In the last three years, I became interested in the Qur'ân... From my studies and what I have learned throughout this conference, I believe that everything that has been recorded in the Qur'ân fourteen hundred years ago must be the truth, that can be proved by the scientific means.

Since the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write, Muhammad must be a messenger who relayed this truth which was revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is eligible creator. This creator must be God, or Allah.

I think this is the time to say La ilaha illa Allah, there is no god to worship except Allah (God), Muhammad rasoolu Allah, Muhammad is Messenger of Allah...

The most precious thing I have gained from coming to this conference is La ilaha illa Allah, and to have become Muslim.""

About the author: Chairman of the Department of Anatomy and is the former Dean of the faculty of Medicine, University of Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Expanding of Cosmos

Author: Mohammad Ali Abid

Before 7929 it was thought that fallacies or bit in haphazard manner seinilar to movement of the molecules of gazes however in 1929 ascintific break though turned this assumption up side down Hable discovered that these millions of phalanxes are gaudily distancing themselves from each other This process of distancing is getting accom plaited in great speed which some times is equal to a fraction of the speed of light Even those fallacies which are near to mear to our glassy (Milk way) with the exception of Andromida, are in contentions process of expansion.This means that the size of the cosmos is in con tenuous expansion . Allah says “And the sky we have created by hands we will enuzde As we know light is formed of seven different colors Each color has awe which has aseptic length vibration .The shortest awe the blue light has the highest vibration whereas the red light has the longest awe but it has the lowest vibration When Hable analyzed the light which comes from the galaxies he has studied he found that in all studied cases, with the exception of Andromida some other near by galaxies there is general widening of the red light . The more widening toward the red more distance of galaxies is from us After this discovering which was made by Hable it became evident that there are huge dark gaps behind these gaps there is a huge gravitational factor which leads to the red widening. Hence the cosmos is expanding from the point of start to the red ray. There fore aOwanic reality which states that “We will envied” has been now confirmed by science which assumes that the cosmos is having beginning from which it expands extends it self Allah says that He created the sky He is the one Who will expand it. This is what is going on now seine billions of years the Cosmos is in a continuos expansion. Many gastronomists have confirmed this fact. There fore it became an unchallenged and confirmed scientific fact. The cosmos is expanding the Earth is Globular rotates around itself rotates around the sun. All these are revealed in Dawn now since is confirming it Swore Irenic Verses in the light of science

About the author: proffesional busines person and islamic scholar

Scientists Declaration about The Holy Quran and Islam-Yushidi Kusan

Author: Yushidi Kusan

Sheikh cAbdul-Majeed A. Zindanî presented a number of Qur'ânic verses describing the beginnings of the universe and of the heavens, and the relationship of the earth to the heavens. He expressed his astonishment, saying that the Qur'ân describes the universe as seen from the highest observation point, everything is distinct and clear.

""I say, I am very much impressed by finding true astronomical facts in Qur'ân, and for us modern astronomers have been studying very small piece of the universe. We have concentrated our efforts for understanding of very small part. Because by using telescopes, we can see only very few parts of the sky without thinking about the whole universe. So by reading Qur'ân and by answering to the questions, I think I can find my future way for investigation of the universe.""

About the author: Director of the Tokyo Observatory, Tokyo, Japan.

Eugenics and the Future of the Human Species

Author: Sam Vaknin

""It is clear that modern medicine has created a serious dilemma ... In the past, there were many children who never survived - they succumbed to various diseases ... But in a sense modern medicine has put natural selection out of commission. Something that has helped one individual over a serious illness can in the long run contribute to weakening the resistance of the whole human race to certain diseases. If we pay absolutely no attention to what is called hereditary hygiene, we could find ourselves facing a degeneration of the human race. Mankind's hereditary potential for resisting serious disease will be weakened.""

Jostein Gaarder in ""Sophie's World"", a bestselling philosophy textbook for adolescents published in Oslo, Norway, in 1991 and, afterwards, throughout the world, having been translated to dozens of languages.

The Nazis regarded the murder of the feeble-minded and the mentally insane - intended to purify the race and maintain hereditary hygiene - as a form of euthanasia. German doctors were enthusiastic proponents of an eugenics movements rooted in 19th century social Darwinism. Luke Gormally writes, in his essay ""Walton, Davies, and Boyd"" (published in ""Euthanasia Examined - Ethical, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives"", ed. John Keown, Cambridge University Press, 1995):

""When the jurist Karl Binding and the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche published their tract The Permission to Destroy Life that is Not Worth Living in 1920 ... their motive was to rid society of the 'human ballast and enormous economic burden' of care for the mentally ill, the handicapped, retarded and deformed children, and the incurably ill. But the reason they invoked to justify the killing of human beings who fell into these categories was that the lives of such human beings were 'not worth living', were 'devoid of value'""

It is this association with the hideous Nazi regime that gave eugenics - a term coined by a relative of Charles Darwin, Sir Francis Galton, in 1883 - its bad name. Richard Lynn, of the University of Ulster of North Ireland, thinks that this recoil resulted in ""Dysgenics - the genetic deterioration of modern (human) population"", as the title of his controversial tome puts it.

The crux of the argument for eugenics is that a host of technological, cultural, and social developments conspired to give rise to negative selection of the weakest, least intelligent, sickest, the habitually criminal, the sexually deviant, the mentally-ill, and the least adapted.

Contraception is more widely used by the affluent and the well-educated than by the destitute and dull. Birth control as practiced in places like China distorted both the sex distribution in the cities - and increased the weight of the rural population (rural couples in China are allowed to have two children rather than the urban one).

Modern medicine and the welfare state collaborate in sustaining alive individuals - mainly the mentally retarded, the mentally ill, the sick, and the genetically defective - who would otherwise have been culled by natural selection to the betterment of the entire species.

Eugenics may be based on a literal understanding of Darwin's metaphor.

The 2002 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica has this to say:

""Darwin's description of the process of natural selection as the survival of the fittest in the struggle for life is a metaphor. 'Struggle' does not necessarily mean contention, strife, or combat; 'survival' does not mean that ravages of death are needed to make the selection effective; and 'fittest' is virtually never a single optimal genotype but rather an array of genotypes that collectively enhance population survival rather than extinction. All these considerations are most apposite to consideration of natural selection in humans. Decreasing infant and childhood mortality rates do not necessarily mean that natural selection in the human species no longer operates. Theoretically, natural selection could be very effective if all the children born reached maturity. Two conditions are needed to make this theoretical possibility realized: first, variation in the number of children per family and, second, variation correlated with the genetic properties of the parents. Neither of these conditions is farfetched.""

The eugenics debate is only the visible extremity of the Man vs. Nature conundrum. Have we truly conquered nature and extracted ourselves from its determinism? Have we graduated from natural to cultural evolution, from natural to artificial selection, and from genes to memes?

Does the evolutionary process culminate in a being that transcends its genetic baggage, that programs and charts its future, and that allows its weakest and sickest to survive? Supplanting the imperative of the survival of the fittest with a culturally-sensitive principle may be the hallmark of a successful evolution, rather than the beginning of an inexorable decline.

The eugenics movement turns this argument on its head. They accept the premise that the contribution of natural selection to the makeup of future human generations is glacial and negligible. But they reject the conclusion that, having ridden ourselves of its tyranny, we can now let the weak and sick among us survive and multiply. Rather, they propose to replace natural selection with eugenics.

But who, by which authority, and according to what guidelines will administer this man-made culling and decide who is to live and who is to die, who is to breed and who may not? Why select by intelligence and not by courtesy or altruism or church-going - or al of them together? It is here that eugenics fails miserably. Should the criterion be physical, like in ancient Sparta? Should it be mental? Should IQ determine one's fate - or social status or wealth? Different answers yield disparate eugenic programs and target dissimilar groups in the population.

Aren't eugenic criteria liable to be unduly influenced by fashion and cultural bias? Can we agree on a universal eugenic agenda in a world as ethnically and culturally diverse as ours? If we do get it wrong - and the chances are overwhelming - will we not damage our gene pool irreparably and, with it, the future of our species?

And even if many will avoid a slippery slope leading from eugenics to active extermination of ""inferior"" groups in the general population - can we guarantee that everyone will? How to prevent eugenics from being appropriated by an intrusive, authoritarian, or even murderous state?

Modern eugenicists distance themselves from the crude methods adopted at the beginning of the last century by 29 countries, including Germany, The United States, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, Venezuela, Estonia, Argentina, Norway, Denmark, Sweden (until 1976), Brazil, Italy, Greece, and Spain.

They talk about free contraceptives for low-IQ women, vasectomies or tubal ligations for criminals, sperm banks with contributions from high achievers, and incentives for college students to procreate. Modern genetic engineering and biotechnology are readily applicable to eugenic projects. Cloning can serve to preserve the genes of the fittest. Embryo selection and prenatal diagnosis of genetically diseased embryos can reduce the number of the unfit.

But even these innocuous variants of eugenics fly in the face of liberalism. Inequality, claim the proponents of hereditary amelioration, is genetic, not environmental. All men are created unequal and as much subject to the natural laws of heredity as are cows and bees. Inferior people give birth to inferior offspring and, thus, propagate their inferiority.

Even if this were true - which is at best debatable - the question is whether the inferior specimen of our species possess the inalienable right to reproduce? If society is to bear the costs of over-population - social welfare, medical care, daycare centers - then society has the right to regulate procreation. But does it have the right to act discriminately in doing so?

Another dilemma is whether we have the moral right - let alone the necessary knowledge - to interfere with natural as well as social and demographic trends. Eugenicists counter that contraception and indiscriminate medicine already do just that. Yet, studies show that the more affluent and educated a population becomes - the less fecund it is. Birth rates throughout the world have dropped dramatically already.

Instead of culling the great unwashed and the unworthy - wouldn't it be a better idea to educate them (or their off-spring) and provide them with economic opportunities (euthenics rather than eugenics)? Human populations seem to self-regulate. A gentle and persistent nudge in the right direction - of increased affluence and better schooling - might achieve more than a hundred eugenic programs, voluntary or compulsory.

That eugenics presents itself not merely as a biological-social agenda, but as a panacea, ought to arouse suspicion. The typical eugenics text reads more like a catechism than a reasoned argument. Previous all-encompassing and omnicompetent plans tended to end traumatically - especially when they contrasted a human elite with a dispensable underclass of persons.

Above all, eugenics is about human hubris. To presume to know better than the lottery of life is haughty. Modern medicine largely obviates the need for eugenics in that it allows even genetically defective people to lead pretty normal lives. Of course, Man himself - being part of Nature - may be regarded as nothing more than an agent of natural selection. Still, many of the arguments advanced in favor of eugenics can be turned against it with embarrassing ease.

Consider sick children. True, they are a burden to society and a probable menace to the gene pool of the species. But they also inhibit further reproduction in their family by consuming the financial and mental resources of the parents. Their genes - however flawed - contribute to genetic diversity. Even a badly mutated phenotype sometimes yields precious scientific knowledge and an interesting genotype.

The implicit Weltbild of eugenics is static - but the real world is dynamic. There is no such thing as a ""correct"" genetic makeup towards which we must all strive. A combination of genes may be perfectly adaptable to one environment - but woefully inadequate in another. It is therefore prudent to encourage genetic diversity or polymorphism.

The more rapidly the world changes, the greater the value of mutations of all sorts. One never knows whether today's maladaptation will not prove to be tomorrow's winner. Ecosystems are invariably comprised of niches and different genes - even mutated ones - may fit different niches.

In the 18th century most peppered moths in Britain were silvery gray, indistinguishable from lichen-covered trunks of silver birches - their habitat. Darker moths were gobbled up by rapacious birds. Their mutated genes proved to be lethal. As soot from sprouting factories blackened these trunks - the very same genes, hitherto fatal, became an unmitigated blessing. The blacker specimen survived while their hitherto perfectly adapted fairer brethren perished (""industrial melanism""). This mode of natural selection is called directional.

Moreover, ""bad"" genes are often connected to ""desirable genes"" (pleitropy). Sickle cell anemia protects certain African tribes against malaria. This is called ""diversifying or disruptive natural selection"". Artificial selection can thus fast deteriorate into adverse selection due to ignorance.

Modern eugenics relies on statistics. It is no longer concerned with causes - but with phenomena and the likely effects of intervention. If the adverse traits of off-spring and parents are strongly correlated - then preventing parents with certain undesirable qualities from multiplying will surely reduce the incidence of said dispositions in the general population. Yet, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. The manipulation of one parameter of the correlation does not inevitably alter it - or the incidence of the outcome.

Eugenicists often hark back to wisdom garnered by generations of breeders and farmers. But the unequivocal lesson of thousands of years of artificial selection is that cross-breeding (hybridization) - even of two lines of inferior genetic stock - yields valuable genotypes. Inter-marriage between races, groups in the population, ethnic groups, and clans is thus bound to improve the species' chances of survival more than any eugenic scheme.

About the author: Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at

Monday, May 29, 2006

Development of a society

Author: Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova

Chapter IV. Development of a society

""… There is no people with such heavy historical burden and with such spiritual power as ours; anybody can not judge a martyr who temporarily has fallen to a cross; but have gained gift to itself - invisibly reviving in visible dying …"" Lev Tolstoy

""Super ego"" has been generated by evolution as the barrier for chaotic expansion and self-destruction. ""Super ego"" has taken the functions establishing principles of ""narrow specialisation"" and ""adaptability-breeding"" which correspond to principles in biosphere. These principles are described in the second part of work. However ""Unconscious"" during all history of mankind by the aspiration to expansion periodically comes out from the ""Super ego"" control making wars, revolutions or great discovering. It develops mankind. And evolution has fixed dominance of the different mental function not only inside each person, but also in character of various societies. How it has turned out? Religions of the East accented attention to the Supreme deity and determined the world as illusion and unconscious aspirations of the person as illusion, as the illusory obstacles which are not giving achievements of the God Absolute. Leaving of the real world and concentration on the supreme world during many centuries has created the rigid associative structures of ""Super ego"" of east societies. The person of the East perceives situations entirely and determines the attitude to a situation by a principle ""it is pleasant or not pleasant"" (the feel function). For the East the past, the legend and tradition is more important than the present or the future. Having concentrated on ""Super ego"" the East has lost abilities to creativity (creativity or creation of new associative structures is inherent for ""Unconscious""). In the West other history. Judaism and Christianity in the greater degree focused attention of the person to the daily life. Concentration of the West society on the present, occurrence of unacceptability by this society of discrepancy between requirements of religion traditions and the current situation have resulted into Renaissance. ""Super ego"" of the West was formed under influence of religion too, but with arrival of Protestantism and with development of a science religious associative structures have started to collapse. ""Super ego"" which serves to individualism is developed now on that place. The person of the West perceives the world through logic and sensing experience supporting logic (the cogitating function and the function of sensing). In the West to survive is necessary to be ""here and now "". What occurs with ""Unconscious""? The West focused to ""Me"" has destroyed religiousness of ""Super ego"" and receives spontaneous expansion of ""Unconscious"", more exactly its part which contains under the action of ""Super ego» extrusion of complexes. It results in elimination of the constraining principles limiting sexual needs and gluttonies needs. Is advertised the sexual revolution with absolute freedom down to distortions and is advertised the high consumption of all kinds of products. The consumer society and the competition society has created a situation similar to an epoch ""struggle of all against all"" in more refined and liberal democratic kind but not excluding mass victims. Victims are people with prevailing functions distinct from the cogitating function and the function of sensing. They are not useful for such society and by millions are thrown out from lives that we now notice in Russia. The contrast of prevailing functions results to misunderstanding between western and east civilisations. It can result in a destroying of World. The phenomenon of Russia consists in following. Being between the East and the West of thousand years she has received incredibly rich associative structures of ""Super ego"" (the Orthodoxy, the Islam, Judaism, the Buddhism) and of ""Unconscious"" (the creativity perfected through difficulties or the destruction of all, depending on a situation). These ""riches"" turn around for us as the great trouble and the great happiness. Trouble is in past experience, happiness is in the future opportunities. The person of Russia perceives the world depending on a situation through ""Super ego"" or ""Unconscious"" (the feel function and the intuitive function) seldom uses consciousness (the cogitating function) because the consciousness is not suitable in conditions of constant uncertainty. It is marked as ""a riddle of Russian soul"" with a positive or negative shade by all serious researchers of Russia. Such position of the Russia results in equally negative result whether she is the East despotism (authority of ""Super ego"") or whether she is the West liberalism (authority of ""Me"").

*** Why has the evolution created such mad country? Can to constrain expansion of the West how Neanderthal men in the past? The answers would not be, if there was no example in a history. One Person has already made that Evolution demands. He has combined the ""Super ego"" and the ""Unconscious""; the law of wildlife and a lifeless Matter; the Past and the Future; Paradise and the Hell; All in Nothing, Nothing into All. It is the Christ. It is easier to person of Russia to repeat a feat of the Saviour. For this purpose the Russians should realise the ""Super ego"", religions of the ancestors (Orthodoxy, the Islam, Judaism and the Buddhism). A modern science can already help us in it. Only then we can understand the ""Unconscious"". Realised the ""Super ego"" can prevent infringement of mentality at passage of complexes, it is the top layer of the ""Unconscious"" which are formed millions years. Probably, everyone understands as far as this dangerous undertaking, but if we shall not start the work, Evolution will force us, having created external conditions. And what external conditions can be we already know. The principle of the Matter Uniting waits us at the end of a way. In the Unconscious of Russia is the Soul of all mankind.

Translated from Russian. We shall be glad to receive your remarks on stylistics, grammar, and content. (on Russian)

About the author: The part of article is created by experts of control systems, managements of projects and psychology. The article contains the concept of person and society development on the basis of traditional religions and modern achievements of science.


Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

Astrodynamics delivers conundra of astronomical proportions. The sheer size of the Universe, its mass and the velocities of bodies stretch the imagination to the limit.

It is little-known that Einstein did NOT receive the Nobel Prize for relativity. He had ALREADY received the 1921 prize in 1922 for PHOTOELECTRICS. Yet even a distinguished scholar like Einstein can be snubbed when the theories become too extravagant.

Subsequently, his relativity theory - within its narrow, specialised constraints - was proven to be true.

At my website I show the principles behind the REAL anti-gravity. You can read it from .

The concept is simple. However, science CAN ONLY advance by small steps. Elaborate conjectures based upon such ideas as the ""Gravitron"" particle - without SOLID proof that they actually exist - are doomed to fail.

The simple idea is that the Moon is held to the Earth by gravity, and experiences due to its orbit a repulsive force known as ""centrifugal force"". These two forces balance, to produce a stable system that has survived since pre-historic times. So much is KNOWN.

Then we imagine the ""Man in the Moon"". He has lived on the ""illuminated"" side of the Moon since pre-historic times, and knows that the Moon is held to the Earth by gravity. But the counterbalancing force cannot be explained as ""centrifugal force"". The ""Man in the Moon"" sees only the ROTATION of the Earth - one degree every FOUR MINUTES - and has to use this fact to explain the stability of the system.

So the ""Man in the Moon"" would use IDENTICAL mathematics to those on Earth who compute ORBIT. However, the sums would be UPSIDE DOWN. He would compute how much thrust (ANTI-GRAVITY) is delivered by the SPIN of a body.

I have done this on my website, and show that the upside-down equations reveal a thrust that increases LINEARLY with distance for any constant spin.

This is surprising, because thrust increases INVERSELY with distance for any constant orbital velocity.

So, if in our dreams we could create an anti-gravity machine (NO!!! I DO NOT HAVE ANY DESIGN-PLANS!), it would not lift off the CARPET, but off some distant place, such as the centre of the Earth. The further away the object, the greater the thrust - and the carpet is too near.

In our imagining, we can visualise some machine lifting away from the carpet, and the pile of that carpet IMMEDIATELY standing erect - because the anti-gravity ""footprint"" would be far away.

The mathematics shows us what WOULD happen, but not how to build a machine. The ""Action at a Great Distance"" conclusion from the anti-gravity equations suggests that building such a machine would not be easy.

Einstein had been working as an assistant to an eminent Swiss astronomer when he found that the Newtonian mechanics broke down when applied to astrodynamics. This was the origin of the new mechanics that was to become known as ""Relativity"".

My own conjectures on ANTI-GRAVITY come up against similar problems, and deliver a similar solution.

The Moon travels around the Earth at about 65,000 miles per hour. This is equivalent, as stated, to a spin of just 15 arc-seconds per minute.

Astrodynamicists have FREQUENTLY ignored the tiny rotational motion of bodies in the solar system, because they SEEMED to be NEGLIGIBLE. The new discovery shows, however, that such small rotations are NOT TO BE DISCOUNTED, because when the mathematics is turned around they represent sizeable orbital velocities.

This leads to the question as to whether ALL equations can be turned around. Can EVERY spin be translated into an orbit?

The size of the Universe suggests otherwise. If antigravity increases linearly with distance, it must be INFINITE, or nearly so, at the outer fringes of the Universe.

So the hand of a child can spin a spinning-top (the energy required is small). However, can the hand of a child put the Universe into orbit around that spinning-top, and at several times or several hundred times per second?

Spin-orbit duality breaks down somewhere.

One can use the ""Law of Conservation of Energy"" to avoid such absurd notions as a child setting the Universe in motion. However, we must consider RELATIVITY.

Newtonian mechanics says that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Einstein's relativity says that energy can be destroyed. If there is MATTER, such as an ELECTRON, it has REST-MASS. Here we must already say ""AT rest - RELATIVE to what""? However, we will leave this point unanswered, because this article is very general.

According to Relativity, a tiny increase in speed from rest of that electron will give it energy HALF M (V squared), where M is the rest-mass. This energy will be destroyed by being incorporated into the mass of the electron. So using M2 (C squared), we can compute M2.

As the electron goes faster, by an identical tiny increase in speed, its energy is HALF (M+M2) (V squared), then HALF (M+M2+M3) (V squared) and so on.

When the Moon is travelling at 65 thousand miles per hour, this compares with light travelling at 669,600,000 miles per hour, approximately.

Light travels therefore at a speed about TEN THOUSAND times faster than the Moon.

The change in mass is proportional to C-squared, just as the energy of motion is proportional to V-squared. So speeds of one ten-thousandth of that of light (four places) will deliver energy equations that are accurate to EIGHT.

It would be nonsense, however, to use my antigravity equations to TWENTY places of decimals and to expect all places to be valid.

We see relativity creeping in, and upsetting the mathematics - but in the Earth-Moon system it is still imperceptible. That is why I used the ""Law of Conservation of Energy"" to derive the results - the errors are still small.

The Moon is a quarter of a million miles away from Earth. So is we multiply this by ten thousand we get TWO-AND-A-HALF THOUSAND-MILLION miles. This is about 26.8 Astronomical Units. At this point, the orbital velocity is similar to the speed of light, and Einstein says that the mathematics breaks down.

So if we consider the hand of a child spinning a top, and INSIST on the conservation of energy, we must adjust the expression HALF M (V-squared) as we move away from the child's top.

Either the mass M of bodies must be adjusted to become less and less, the further away we go (RELATIVITY MASS), or the velocity V of bodies must become less and less as we move away from the spinning body (RELATIVITY VELOCITY).

It makes a kind of sense to choose to alter V. However, this is composed of two fundamental units, distance D and time T, where V=D/T.

We cannot alter the distance, because it is Pi times the diameter of the ""orbit"". So if D cannot diminish, T must INCREASE.

What this means is that a perceived time T is actually LONGER at that distant place than we had known.

So we need TIME DILATION to deal with the breakdown of spin-orbit duality at relativistic speeds.

Fortunately, linear particle-accelerators have successfully slowed down time until mesons that lived for just a microsecond could be studied for SECONDS.

So Einstein's time-dilation has been PROVEN.

The conundrum of spin-orbit duality breakdown has delivered a similar result. Einstein has been vindicated again.

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Charles Douglas Wehner was born in 1944. He was a technical author, a design engineer and the manager of a photoelectrics manufacturing company.

Can New Born Chickens Influence a Robot?

Author: Thomas Herold

Decades ago Albert Einstein told us that space and time are not conditions in which we live; they are modes in which we think.

'Nonlocality and the Observer' is a fascinating documentation from a workshop held by Mike Wright. The first 30 minutes are a warm up into the realm of quantum physics. But then fasten your seat belts and be prepared for some big surprises that may change the way you think about yourself and your abilities to communicate with others.

Mike Wright explains how quantum theory and laboratory experiments verify that we have a connection to everyone and everything we have ever interacted with. You will learn the concepts that allow you to not only change your future but change your personal past.

Einstein also told us that what we see depends upon the theories we use to interpret our observations. Mike explains how as the Observer you affect reality. How we experience life depends upon the information we have to interpret our interactions.

The information in this video allows you to update your personal model of reality and thus change how you view the world and your experiences in it.

The Priceton Experiments In 1980 Princeton University made one of the most scientific studies on consciousness. The outcome of these experiments are still not accepted from a majority of scientists today. The implication of these experiments are on such a big scale that our consciousness has difficulties in grasping its potential.

They took two random people that were not related to one other and have never seen each other in this life time. The two participants then were told to just spend 30 minutes together. After that one participant was moved away and placed in a special room, which was completely isolated from the other person. Furthermore, the outside of the room were separated by a Faraday capsule to insure that no physical signals whatsoever could travel between the two of them.

Both participants were then hooked up withEEG (measurement for the electrical activity of the brain) readers. Now, the person in the isolated room was given visual and acoustic stimuli. The stimuli of course showed up in the EEG. But, and here is the stunning surprise of this experiment, the same stimuli showed up an the other participant's EEG. Taking the EEG from both participants and comparing them on a time scale showed that when the person in the separated room showed a stimuli in the EEG the other person's EEG showed the same stimuli, at the same time!

The outcome of this experiment was so exciting that they immediately came up with some other ideas. Also they thought that maybe there was a sort of placebo effect involved or maybe the human being had something special, which was causing that outcome. So they went on to widen these experiments to include animals.

The first experiments involved new born chickens. New born chickens relate to anything moving in their environment as their mother. They were building a small robot based on a random event generator, which produces simple right and left turns based on the random event being zero or one. The chickens were placed in a cage and the robot was positioned out of the cage. What happened is that the robot turned significant more times towards the cage than away from it.

The expected 50% left and right movement were no more random!

In another experiment they used new born rabbits, which are very sensitive to light. This time the robot was equipped with a bright flash light on top and was placed near the cage were the young rabbits were in. In turns out this time that the robot moved significantly more times away from the cage than towards the cage. Again, the randomness was no more random!

About the author: Thomas Herold is the founder and CEO of Quantum Biocommunication Technology. Quantum Biocommunication Technology

Spin-Orbit Duality, Astromechanics and Anti-Gravity

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

ANTIGRAVITY has long been the ""holy grail"" that scientists sought after. It was considered that when found, it would lead immediately to amazing flying machines.

Theories of antigravity have always been based on theories of gravity, and on the invention of ""mathematical models"" or ""mind pictures"" involving gravity PARTICLES or ""Gravitrons"".

The TRUE secret of antigravity was revealed in 2002 on my website. There are no outlandish claims about special particles, or mysterious ""forces"".

It is just the ORBITAL THRUST of a body when seen from that body. What you see from orbit is SPIN - so this must give a thrust.

From the Moon, the Earth turns just ONE degree every FOUR MINUTES. This may seem to be a trivial movement, but when turned backwards into orbit, it represents the 65,000 miles-per-hour orbital motion of the moon.

So astronomers ignore spin at their peril.

And those amazing MACHINES? Not just yet - you see, antigravity works at a DISTANCE.

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: An electronics engineer and technical author, born 1944, with extensive experience of computer, radar, safety equipment and instrumentation-and-control design. Such work led to a deeper study of the laws of nature, from which this discovery emerged.

Short-Circuit Biasing of Transistors

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

When a fundamental law of nature is revealed, the best inventions arise.

Here, the author heard of a mysterious unexplained oscillation in silicon bipolar transistors, and upon investigating discovered that it related to the band-gap energy of silicon.

With the phenomenon fully explained, it became possible to design electronic circuits of exquisite simplicity, reliability and performance.

Unfortunately, the author suffers from an untreated Addison's disease. It is one thing to have the knowledge of progress - quite another to implement progress when one is half dead through metabolic disturbance.

The industrial climate was also not conducive to success. The whole of British industry collapsed - and the German economy is currently (2003) in recession.

There is no point in keeping good ideas secret until one dies. If one cannot use it - SHARE IT. And hope, perhaps, that those who gain benefit from it will reward you in the future.

During the thirty years that this concept was kept secret, millions of radios, televisions and portable telephones were manufactured. In many cases, enormous savings could have been made on each item. The economic value of the concept can be reckoned in billions of dollars worldwide.


Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Charles Douglas Wehner was born in 1944. He was a technical draughtsman in computer manufacture in 1962, and became a technical author (radars of Concorde and Harrier as well as nucleonics), design engineer and factory manager. Further experience was in measurement-and-control systems, photoelectrics and ultrasonics.

Charles Wehner was professionally active in Britain and Germany.

Sunday, May 28, 2006

Euler's Identity and the Eucalculus

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

People find mathematics - particularly higher mathematics - difficult. This is perhaps due to a lack of VISUAL IMAGERY with which to bring the concepts to life.

As a professional technical author, I decided to use graphical techniques to simplify the understanding of such things as Euler's equation.

This allowed me to guide the reader into a study of the Fractional Factorials - which Euler called the ""GAMMA FUNCTION"" - and introduce a brand-new extension to the Calculus. This I call the Eucalculus.

But one does not rush headlong into uncharted territory. Warnings are issued that there may be pitfalls in the established Art of mathematics, let alone in this cutting-edge development.


Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Born in 1944, Charles Wehner is an electronics design engineer and technical author working in so many fields linked to electronics that he was obliged to investigate the fundaments of the mathematics that he used.

Globular Nature of Earth

Author: Mohammad Ali Abid

The holy quran is the word of Allah . it is our way of worship up to the judgement day . this means that there is no contradiction between what it says and what the new scientific discovers say . however , quran must be understood properly so that to confirm the concerns of the new scientific discoveries , because many scientific statements of today may be refuted tomorrow there fore they must be dealt with carefully when we try to see it significance in quran Allah says “ and the land we have spread out [15:19] spread means stretched however this quanic verse combines language and its effectiveness after almost fact which human intellect it discovers after almost one thousand and five hundred years .when the verse mentioned that the earth is stretched it did not mean that the whole shape of the earth is stretched but it addressed man that wherever the moves he will always find the earth gets stretched before him . man who;; might get confounded by an adage of earth where he will find space . if the shape of the earth was square or rectangle or in any shape other than globular man would have get confronted by an adage where he sees the end of the surface of the earth and the begging of the space man to come back to the same point from where he moved as the globular shape , man in this movement from the starting point and coming back to the same point will always find the earth stretched before him therefore the above mentioned quince verse miraculously indicates the appearance as well as the reality this makes quran as the first book which pointed out that the earth is round Not only this but another quince verse states also that the earth rotates around itself around the sun ( he created the heavens sand the earth in true (proportions) he makes the night overlap the day and the day overlap the night , he has subjected the sun and the moon ( to his law ) each one follows a confess for a time appointed is not he the excalted in power – “he who forgives again and again” [39:5] this verse shows that day and night overlap each other systematically this cannot take place unless the earth is globular when half of the earth is in day time the other half would by in night time , the earth was not globular the space of day and night would have not be equal . today after science has advanced man discovered from the space that when half of the earth is lighted the other half would merman dark . If we want another evidence which confirm the earth notices and it radiate around the sun we can examine the quranic verse which says “thor seest the mountains and thickest them firmly fixed but they shall pass away as the clouds pass away (such is ) the artistry of Allah . who disposes of all things in perfect order : for he is well acquainted which all that ya do”[27_88] this verse that our sight may not sometimes see the actual course of thing if we look at a mountain we may think that it is firmly fixed but actually it is moving and it movement is part of the earth movement with that of the Claud so that is make the meaning clear for the sensuous looker , mountains also move , but their movement is part of the movement of earth as they as situated on earth the earth votaries m therefore naturally it rotates with its contents snide we don’t feel the process of earth rotator we cannot feel the movement of the content which is fix on earth therefore the verse present the clouds which are in the atmosphere to clarify the whole process in relation to the mountains and earth . However , this quranic verse calls upon us to open our eyes and examine quran carefully and see the miraculous nature of quran . if we do so it would be more clear that it is a holy book revealed by more clear that it is a holly book revealed by Allah to his prophet Mohammed PBUH We will also release that there is no contradictions between quran and cosmic realities and facts which are being discovered now , quran has already revealed these comic venalities and facts since a long time , however the human interred is releasing it too late after almost fourteen centuries

About the author: proffesional busines person and islamic scholar

Home fly

Author: Mohammad Ali Abid

Home fly may trams fir a disease but with that disease it may provide medicine also. The prophet Mohammed PBUH said It the home fly falls in your drink then dip the whole fly into the drink pull it out because on one of its wings there may be a disease but there is its medicine on the other wing (Refer Bukar, Ibn Maja Ahmed.He also said Verily on one of the wings of home fly there is poison and on the other wing there is its cure If home fly falls on food then dip the fly in it because it brings for word the poison and delays the cure Refer to Ahamed IBN Maja There is medical miracle in the a bore sayings of the prophet Mohammed PBUH which if the international medical circles are just must be recognized and recorded by golden ink. What has been revealed by the prophet of Islam before fourteen centuries the modern discovery. The prophets saying shows the significance of the venation between the poison its are the body subject to disease. The above saying shows that if the home fly fall in eatables or drink bales we have to remember that it might drop in it harmful germs. We have to remember also that the home fly is nursing the medicine for the same disease caused by the germs it dropped in the food or drunk. Therefore if we dip the whole insect inside the food drink, then we create ahggenic balance. In other words we can be safe of the disease because we have already got its medicine. The amount of the bacteria dose in the fly is equal to the amount of the bacteria therefore it is capable of eliminating it. Now it is suientically prophet that the fly secrets an enzyme called bacteria or germs killer which may hang on or attack the home fly. Hence it is a proof to the cerrectness of the saying of the prophet of Islam. Dr. Amin Ridha, the professor of bones surgeon in medical college in Alexandria Unwisely wrote a research about the He dith of Home Fly. He confirmed that the old medical references contain medical prescribe tion to different diseases which advice to use Home fly. In the modern time the surgeons of the 1930 who were in the period which preceded the discover of sulfate have witnessed the medication of chuonic bone breaks and chuonic ulcers by Home fly This bone breaks and chuonic ulcers undulates that modern science has confirmed the correctness of the prophets sayings which have been revealed to him by Allah before fourteen centuries Source scientific Miracles in Islam Sunna Nabaweya

About the author: Mohammad Ali is a student of islamic studies and By profession he is an business personality.His mission is to create the awareness about islam to everyone.


Author: Mohammad Ali Abid

The prophet Mohammed (PBUH) said “It is prohibited upon my nation to eat whatever has claws & what has canine tooth, from predatory animals” [Refer to Abu Daud] The Modern Nourishment science confirmed that people acquire some of the characteristics of animals which they eat because the meat of those animals contain some kind of secreted horn ones & components which affect the moral ethical & behavioral quality of those who eat it. It was discovered that when a predatory bird or animal is on a hunting task, some glands in its body secret some kinds of harmonies which help it to confront, light & kill the victim. Dr. S Libij, the teacher of nourishment in England, says: These secreted materials and harmonies are found in the body of the predatory even it was a captive in a large. This is manifest when you visit the zoo and see the tiger while it is eating a piece of meat. You can see the anger, cruelty & agitated nervous exposed through its face & general behavior. Compare such an animal with the elephant & see the mildness which is manifest on its face while it is eating & playing with children visitors. Look at the lion; its cruelty & roughness & compare it with the camel & its mildness. It was observed that nations who eat predators whether birds or animals which has been prohibited by Islam, those nations have cruel & violent tendencies even if there was no reason behind being cruel. They have such tendencies just for the sake of blood shedding. Researches confirmed that this fact is manifest among backward tribes who due to the excessive eating of predators meat become extremely cruel & turn into cannibals. Researches confirmed that those tribes are also affected by sexual anarchy. They don’t have respect to the institution of family and honor. They are living way of way that is almost similar to that of predators and beats. The male attacks another male & kill him so that to pull-away & consume the available females till another male who is more stronger comes & kills the previous triumphant & possess as well as sexually consume the already consumed females & so on. This may be behind the absence of the value of honor and may appearance of sexual aberration among the Europeans. Abnormal sexual behaviors exist now among the Europeans. They exchange wives, betray wives & vice versa. It is well known that even if the pig is reared in clean & well-cared fences, it does not forget its dirty nature. If it is realized, it will, again, return to the habit of eating dirts & enjoy it more that the joy which it used to experience when eating potato & beas in sterile and clean fences. This is the reason which makes the bodies of pigs contain various warms, parasites & microbes and excessive bolic acid. All these get transferred to the body of the consumer of the pork. The meat of the pig contains also a higher percentage of fat compared to that of other animals. Therefore its digestion is difficult. It is well known that the quality of meat eaten by man depends on its fat. The fatter the meat contains the move difficult for digestion it is. The American encyclopedia shows that each one hundred pounds of pig meat contain about fifty pounds fat. This means that fat is 50% of the quantity of park, whereas it is only 17% in sheep meat & in cow meat it is not more than 5%. It was found that the fat of pork contains a high percentage of complicated fatty acids. The percentage of cholesterol in the meat of pig, sheep and cow is 9:7:6 respectively. Simply this means that the percentage of cholesterol in pork is ten times more than that of cow meat. This means that the meat of pig is dangerous to human health because it increases the percentage of cholesterol in blood. When the quantity of cholesterol increases in the human blood and becomes more than the normal amount it starts sedimenting in arteries, particularly in the heart arteries, consequently it causes high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis and both are the main cause of heart attack which is wide spread in Europe. It was found that the statistics of heart attack published in Europe indicate that the percentage of heart attack and arteriosclerosis cases in Europe is five time more than those in the Islamic world, in addition to the nervous tension which the modern medicine considers it as a factor behind such diseases. It is worthy mentioning that the predatory animals are known as canine tooth animals which has been mentioned id the saying of the prophet Mohammed (PBUH). They are having four canines in the upper & lower laws. This is not only confined to the animals, but it also include some types of birds. Birds are divided into two types, grass eaters such as hens and pigeons, as well meat eaters such as eagles and falcons. However, to make a scientific distinction between these two types, it is said that the meat eater bird has a violent piercing claws whereas the home birds such as hens & pigeons are not having such piercing claws. Moreover, it is well known that the normal human nature repulses from eating the meat of meat of the predators, whether animals or birds, except in some so-called civilized materialistic societies & in some back ward tribes as we mentioned before. All these facts indicate that Islam knows what is harmful to human beings and therefore it has made this scientific classification of meat since fourteen centuries so that to protect man from what ever is harmful & honor him by not allowing him to eat beast-like animal and turns himself into an ailing beast. Source: “Scientific Miracles in Islam & Sunna Nabaweya

About the author: proffesional busines person and islamic scholar

Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter

Author: K.A.Cassimally

It is in the latest Harry Potter novel, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, that readers get the confirmation that the ‘Boy who lived’ is indeed interested in a science that even some Muggles are good at: Astronomy, the study of celestial objects, of space and of the physical universe as a whole. Maybe the awful Dursleys did do some good things with Harry when they let the wizard, who did not yet know he was one, learn Astronomy.

At Hogwards School of Witchcraft and Wizardry though, Harry and his two best friends, Ron and Hermione, seemed to be going on more with the giant of the giants: Jupiter but to be more precise with its moons.

But unluckily for the wizards and witches, Astronomy was making life difficult. As Harry and his friends would be sitting for their O.W.L.S (Ordinary Wizarding Level) at the end of the year, they were bombarded with homework. This was fortunately corrected by Hermione before being actually handed to the teachers. And believe me, this was a good thing too as both Harry and Ron were making terrible mistakes. If it were not for Hermione, both boys would be getting a ‘D’ standing for Dreadful on the top corner of their parchment rolls. An would be: ‘“Harry, you must have misheard Professor Sinistra,” says Hermione, “Europa’s covered in ice not mice!”’

Europa as you might have guessed is way too cold for mice. Spacecrafts have taken photos of this natural satellite and Europa does look lifeless.

If you are a Harry Potter fan though, you may well say that Harry went on Europa by magic and then saw living organisms there. Well coming to think of it, maybe he did find life on Europa if of course he ever went there.

This is because below Europa’s ice coating, scientists think that there may well be a big ocean of liquid water. The biggest ocean in the Solar System in fact and that says something. Here on Earth, life and water appear to go together. So it is logical to think that there may be life in that ocean of Europa, is it not? Of course life in the form of microbes or some sort of alien fish is expected. And maybe swimming mice!

Unfortunately the mystery of life in Europa cannot be solved by this generation and I personally think nor can the next. This is because of the technology which still needs to take a big step forwards.

Back at Hogwarts, Hermione who was correcting one of Ron’s essay about Io, another of Jupiter’s numerous satellites, when she spotted yet another mistake. She remarked, “And it’s Io that’s got the volcanoes.”

She was right again. Some people (I’ll say including Ron) say that Io looks like a pepperoni pizza because the satellite is dotted with volcanoes. “Io has more pepperoni-coloured volcanoes than Ron Weasley has freckles,” says Dr. Tony Phillips. At this very moment dozens of these volcanoes are vomiting the hottest lava in the Solar System. The plumes rise so high into space that volcanic ash freezes before falling back to the ground as sulphurous snow. NASA’s spacecrafts have actually flown through these plumes and survived.

Back on Earth and at Hogwarts more precisely where Hermione told Ron over the latter’s shoulder, ‘“Jupiter’s biggest moon is Ganymede, not Callisto.”’

Ganymede is the largest known satellite discovered in the entire Solar System. It is a little wider than Mercury, which is the closest planet to the Sun in the Solar System.

Ron’s mistake is not of those terrible ones though because Callisto is only a little smaller than Ganymede. Like Europa, Callisto may be concealing an ocean.

These four satellites were all discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1960. Galilei was astounded when he observed Jupiter through his primitive telescope as he saw four little ‘stars’ near the giant planet. He was even more amazed when he discovered that these ‘stars’ were moving in what seemed to be an orbit around Jupiter from night to night. Astronomers now call these four natural satellites the Galilean satellites.

Almost everything that is known about the Galilean satellites comes from NASA’s spacecraft, especially the two Voyager probes. But Hogwarts is a school of magic whereas Astronomy is simply magic.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal, a small publication of the RCPL Astronomy Club, Mauritius. Check out the new website (to be launched in February 2004):

Saturday, May 27, 2006

Asteroid Attack

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Earth, ‘our mother planet’, is being attacked everyday by about 25 tons of dust and sand-sized particles. An asteroid, the size of a small car, hits Earth’s atmosphere about once in every year.

Fortunately she knows how to defend herself. When that small car-sized asteroid enters her atmosphere, she burns the asteroid up before the latter touches her surface. So no damage is done.

But what exactly are asteroids? Asteroids are fragments from the formation of the Solar System some 4.6 billion years ago. Fortunately, most asteroids are found in the Asteroid Belt found between the planets Mars and Jupiter, the gas giant. Scientists think that asteroids found in the belt can be as big as 940 km across.

Like everybody though, Earth cannot cope with each and every one of the asteroids.

If an asteroid has managed not to be completely burned up while sprinting into Earth’s atmosphere, then ???? Scientists think that the collision would cause local damage to the surrounding area.

If that same asteroid however measures more than 1 km across when it touches Earth’s surface, disaster is on its way. Scientists believe that this impact could have worldwide effects. Man however is helping or trying to help our mother Earth.

Astronomers are now observing and tracking asteroids, which are at an average distance from Earth to Moon. By immediately tracking potential dangers and learning more about their orbital paths, scientists have more time to study potentially threatening situations. In the next few years, NASA hopes to discover more than 90% of all Earth’s threatening objects larger than 1 km across.

But we have to stop these threatening asteroids from hitting Earth so as to ‘save’ ourselves.

In some movies, we see a missile being launched straight towards a big asteroid. The latter then explodes and the film usually ends. But in reality, it’s not that simple. Did you ever think what might happen to the biggest remains of that big asteroid? Maybe it would go and enter Earth’s atmosphere or maybe not. If it does pass this first test, maybe it will cause big damages or maybe not. You will agree with me that man cannot take such a risk.

An idea suggests that if a small asteroid is indeed intending to hit Earth, an engine is to be anchored in it. This engine is simply going to push the asteroid away.

Yet another strategy to put the asteroid out of the way is to attach solar sails to it. The ‘gentle’ pressure of sunlight on the sails will deflect the asteroid away from Earth.

Luckily an asteroid the size of a football field manages to hit the Earth only every thousand years or so but mind you I do not know when such an asteroid did hit Earth last.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal, a small publication of the RCPL Astronomy Club, Mauritius. Here is the new website(to be launched in February 2004):

Chromatography - Hayrapetyan's Effect

Author: Aram Hayrapetyan

""It was not so difficult to invent a new basic technology of Chromatography - Chromabarography; it is rather difficult to wait for its wide practical use for the development of science in the benefit of mankind!"" Aram Hayrapetyan

There are the best chromatographs in the world, the most modern technological elaborations, but there is not the one, which provides the maximum efficiency of the chromatographic column.

I have a lot of secrets in the field of chromatography! One of them is the attainment of maximum possible efficiency of the chromatographic column (HAYRAPETYAN'S Effect). It is provided with new basic technology of chromatography - CHROMABAROGRAPHY (Russia patent ""Chromatograph of A. S. Hayrapetyan"").

The essence of the new basic technology of chromatography - chromabarography is the provision of the optimal conditions of the analysis by keeping unchanged the linear rate of an imaginary point - the zone of the sample moved in time by the carrier-gas from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column, ? p being kept constant at its ends during the whole cycle of the analysis, by which a maximum column efficiency (Hayrapetyan's Effect) is attained.

What is Chromabarography? The answer may be so: Or . . . so: The main advantages of the proposed technology in practical analysis may be generated in the form of the following propositions:

Attainment of maximum possible efficiency of the column on account of providing the optimal conditions of the analysis by keeping unchanged the linear rate of an imaginary point - the zone of the sample moved in time by the carrier-gas from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column;

Reduction of analysis time for a wide range of mixtures, which allows to work with a shorter column (economy of solid support, liquid phase, column material) and at much lower temperatures (economy of electricity) for which the relative retention is generally high. Thus the best separation is attained without increasing the analysis time. This means an increase in the productivity of routine analyses and elaboration of chromatographic methods;

Due to the fact that it is possible to work at lower temperatures (economy of electricity) the amount of the liquid phases used in the given analysis is increased. At the same time low working temperatures may become necessary for certain thermally unstable samples (increase in column service time);

As the peak height is related with carrier-gas rate, wide peaks eluted later will be much sharper. This allows a better identification of low concentrations (increase in analysis accuracy);

Attainment of symmetrical peaks also in case of nonlinear adsorption isotherm, as the rear of the band is at a higher pressure than the front;

The substantial enrichment, the increase in concentration of the component in the center of the band is conditioned by the compression of the band both as a consequence of the moving pressure gradient compared with the initial sorption pressure, and as a consequence of the presence of the moving gradient of the optimal linear speed accompanying the band of components being analyzed from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column during the while analysis cycle (increase in the efficiency of the separation of the components);

The pressure of the gas in the column can be changed almost instantaneously and equilibrium can be attained in a very short time. Pressure re-regulation excludes the necessity of long ""periods of cooling"" of the column (express - analysis, economy of electricity), while temperature increase programming may either cause evaporation of the stationary phase, which ""flies out"" of the column, or destroy it chemically to various molecules, which also will soon come out by the carrier-gas. The repetitive cycles of heating and cooling may cause compression of solid support particles during expansion, followed by destruction (crumbling) during compression, which leads to a progressive change of permeability. The maximum possible effectivity of the chromatographic column - Hayrapetyan's Effect

The maximum possible effectivity of the chromatographic column - Hayrapetyan's E ff e c t

All the rest - XX century.

P. S.

C h r o m a b a r o g r a p h y A new step of effectivity, A first - hand new technology.

Toward the new century with a new technology.

About the author: ARAM HAYRAPETYAN 47/6 Vardanants Street, Vanadzor 377201, Republic of Armenia, E-mail: Web-site: HTTP://CHROMATOGRAPHY.HOTBOX.RU PUBLICATIONS AND ARTICLES: 57 published works, including 21 certificates for individual authorship from USSR and Russia, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. PERSONAL DATES: Born 17 May 1945, married, two children. Daughter born 1972, married. Son born 1977.

Chromatography a Superiority Formula

Author: Aram Hayrapetyan

""All flows, all changes"". Heraclides

""It's not difficult to know, it is difficult to get familiar"". Skovoroda The theory of gas chromatography, presented by the equation of Van Deemter,

(1) shows that for each chromatographic separation there exists an optimal flow rate above and below which the column efficiency is reduced.

In practice, the linear speed of the sample zone moved by the carrier gas, is changed continuously and increases as it approaches the outlet, which results in a non-effective use of a part of the column.

In this case equation (1) characterizes the optimal separation process only in that section of the chromatographic column through which the sample passes at an optional speed.

In equation (1) are constant values and is the speed of the moving zone of the sample which changes continuously in time. Thus equation (1) gets the following form:

(2) where is the speed of the sample at a distance from the beginning of the column and changes - increases - toward the outlet. This shows that HETP is not always optimal in all sections of the chromatographic column. Let be the length of the chromatographic column, the pressure at the inlet of the column and the pressure at the outlet of the column, the distance of a point on the chromatographic column from its inlet. It is evident that pressure at point on the column can be determined from the correlation

The flow rate at any point on the chromatographic column depends on pressure at that point, as well as on the inlet pressure and the outlet pressure of the column. But the pressure at any point on the column depends on the inlet pressure and the outlet pressure of the chromatographic column and on the distance from the column inlet. Thus the flow rate at any point on the column in case of fixed physical parameters of the chromatographic column can be considered as a function of pressure at this point and at the ends and of the distance of this point from the column inlet;

Consequently the whole process in the chromatographic column is characterized by a multiple of equations (3).

When at the inlet and outlet of the column the pressure is kept constant, each section of the chromatographic column, through which the sample zone moves, is characterized by its equation from multiple (3).

However the linear speed of the sample zone moving with the carrier-gas can be kept constant by programming the pressure gradient movement along the column in time, realizing the function: pressure - location - time by keeping constant the pressure difference ? p at the ends of the chromatographic column during the whole cycle of the analysis (Russia Patent ""Chromatograph of A. S. Hayrapetyan"").

The sample travels through the chromatographic column in time

where is the length of the chromatographic column and the optimal speed of the sample zone.

The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the chromatographic column, undergoing a change at equal intervals of time, is expressed by

where - sample injection time, and - elution time.

We mark by

the sections of the chromatographic column travelled by the sample zone with an optimal velocity of the carrier-gas at the corresponding moments of time,

where - the beginning of the chromatographic column, and - the end of the chromatographic column.

Let at the moment the pressure at the inlet and outlet of the chromatographic column be correspondingly

Then at the moments of time on the corresponding sections

of the chromatographic column, the pressure will be

It may be noticed that

as well as

in this case


We build a matrix of pressures in the following way: let each line in it correspond to the pressures of the column at points

at a pressure at the inlet and at the outlet of the column at a moment while each column corresponds to the pressures at a point at moments of time

Thus the matrix has the following form

The first column of the matrix corresponds to the pressure at the inlet of the column, while the last one to the outlet. They are chosen such that in the column zone where the sample is found at a definite moment of time, there will always exist a constant pressure corresponding to an optimal flow rate. The first column corresponds to the moment of sample introduction, and the last one to the elution of the separated components from the column. Each element of the matrix corresponds to a definite flow rate at a definite moment of time. To each element of the matrix there corresponds a definite flow rate and followingly its equation from the multiple (3). The matrix elements corresponding to the passage of the sample with an optimal speed through the corresponding points of the column at definite moments of time are marked in yellow. For these it may be written

The carrier-gas pressure is programmed in such a way that it constantly secures an optimal linear speed for an imaginary point - the zone of the sample which travels with the carrier-gas from the inlet to the outlet of the chromatographic column in time, keeping ? p constant at its ends during the whole cycle of the analysis. This arithmetical model (of Hayrapetyan - Aghababyan) of chromatographic analysis built on the basis of the equation of Van Deemter describes in detail the mentioned technological process of analysis organization and corresponds to that equation from the multiple (3) which provides the optimal conditions of the analysis and leads to the attainment of the maximum possible efficiency of the column (Hayrapetyan's Effect). In other words the pressure at the inlet and outlet of the chromatographic column is programmed such, that the carrier-gas flow rate in the column is optimal in each section at the needed moments of time. Thus, the separation of the sample is characterized by the equations from the multiple (3)

and they are all equivalent to the equation


And thus the maximum possible efficiency of the chromatographic column is attained (Hayrapetyan's Effect).

P. S.

C H R O M A B A R O G R A P H Y - a new conveniences F o r m u l a : optimal velocity, managing ability, durability, and the maximum possible effectivity of the chromatographic column.


About the author: ARAM HAYRAPETYAN 47/6 Vardanants Street, Vanadzor 377201, Republic of Armenia, Tel: (374) 512 0115 E-mail: Web-site: HTTP://CHROMATOGRAPHY.HOTBOX.RU PUBLICATIONS AND ARTICLES: 57 published works, including 21 certificates for individual authorship from USSR and Russia, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. PERSONAL DATES: Born 17 May 1945, married, two children. Daughter born 1972, married. Son born 1977.

What is a Coprolite and Where Can I find One?

Author: Joseph Patrick

Sometime during the 1970's I remember reading an article about Lloyds bank in the UK and what it had in common with an ancient Viking encampment once located in York, England. I remember the story being reported in the Wall Street Journal and I also remember it was the first time I had ever encountered the word ""coprolite.""

So what is a coprolite you ask? (I can save you a trip to the dictionary and tell you that a ""coprolite"" is scientific talk for ""fossilized feces,"" in other words, it's a ""petrified turd."") If you would like to know ""where can I find one?"" just continue reading.

The Lloyds bank having resolved to be represented in York, purchased the property that was to be the home of their new branch office.

During the initial site digging, workers began to find artifacts from a much earlier time. A decision was made to do some Archeological work before continuing with construction. It was during this dig that a 9-inch long coprolite was discovered. It was ultimately determined to be of human origin, and is reputedly the largest specimen of human feces ever recovered.

What to do now? Call in the Paleontologists. These are the guys who study the history of life on earth based on fossil evidence. Fossil evidence includes among other things; rocks, dinosaur bones and of course ""coprolites"". By analyzing coprolites, human and otherwise, it is sometimes possible to determine the diet of the animal which produced them and also the health of that animal.

Whoever left this magnificent piece of human excrement lying in the dirt a thousand years ago surely couldn't imagine anything of its recent retrieval and subsequent study. But scientists tell us the owner of this coprolite, whether male of female was not a great vegetable eater and they subsisted mainly on meats and grain. It seems other smaller coprolites found at this same site contained more vegetable and fruit matter. They also noted evidence of several-hundred parasite eggs in the feces, which would indicate that the owner's stomach and intestines would have been full of worms. Not a very pleasant thought Yuk!

The now famous Lloyds Bank Turd is the property of the York Archaeological Trust and has been on display at the Archaeological Resource Centre in York. The human coprolite is currently undergoing repairs as it was recently broken into several pieces when its display stand toppled.

I haven't located any information on what other rarities were uncovered at the UK location if any, but rest assured, history will only be inclined to remember the 9-inch human coprolite produced by a Viking and now affectionately named the Lloyds Bank Turd.

About the author: A part-time writer and full-time webmaster, Joseph Patrick, can be found managing his full service travel website, where you will find the resources to book affordable trips to over 710 unique, popular and exciting destinations using the exclusive Triptactics Do-It-Yourself Vacation Package Builder.

A spring called: Drop of water

Author: K.A.Cassimally

Do you know what happens when a drop of water hits a non-absorbent surface? Yeah you’re right (if you don’t have the answer, please re-read the title of this column), the drop bounces upwards.

A French scientific team from the Coll?ge de France have studied the scene carefully with a camera that took 40000 images per second. Here are the results: At first, when it hits the surface, the drop flattens. Then, it bounces up due to the movement energy it had when falling down. The drop will continue going upwards eventually taking the shape of a needle. Afterwards, the drop falls upon itself, into itself. It thus takes the shape of a pancake (again) but this time, the drop is in midair.

This phenomenon is different to a drop falling on other surfaces as in this case, the drop crashes on the surface leaving only a small quantity of the water to bounce up. Physicists have also found out that the actual speed of a drop influences its deformation but not the time taken for it to get in contact with the surface. This actually depends upon the mass of the drop.

Anyway why is all this stuff important anyway? Scientists believe that this find may be of interest to the industry. There’s a small illustration: Imagine not seeing droplets of rain on your car’s windscreen when it is in fact raining cats and dogs outside. Cool, isn’t it? Well this may well be possible with these new data obtained by the scientists from the Coll?ge de France. How though? Easy enough! The period of contact of the raindrops with the windscreen is so minimal that the driver does not even see them!

Water drops bounces like springs, would you ever have thought of this? No, I’m not sure you would.

About the author: K.A.Cassimally is the editor in chief of Astronomy Journal and Astronomy Journal Ezine. He is also the co-founder of the RCPL Astronomy Club. K.A.Cassimally is best known for his article 'Harry Potter and the Moons of Jupiter'. He is also Senior Columnist at where he writes 'Not Scientific Science'. Website: : Email:

Friday, May 26, 2006

The Colour of Electrons and the CCD

Author: Charles Douglas Wehner

The world of physics is a strange world indeed.

At the end of the nineteenth century it was found that a negatively charged metal plate would discharge when illuminated, but a positively charged one would not.

Then it was found by some researchers that NO metal plate would discharge.

Other researchers found that red light had no effect, but blue discharged the plate.

The ""photoelectric effect"" was a mess.

Max Planck discovered that light consisted of particles. And each particle (or quantum) had an energy that could be defined as Joules.

The science was very simple. Take the frequency of that light particle, multiply by Planck's constant, and you find how many Joules of energy are in that particle.

You could even pretend that this light particle collided with an electric particle - the electron. If so, it would transfer its energy to that electron in just the same way as the chemistry of a battery energises electrons.

So we could define the near infra-red as 1.7 electron volts, and at the other end of the spectrum ultra-violet begins at 3.2.

For this he got the Nobel prize.

With the electron-voltages of light being now defined, Einstein decided to tackle the problem of the metal plate. Why was it that only NEGATIVE electricity would be discharged? Because there is only one kind of ""charge-carrier"". Or so it seemed at the time.

Why did some researchers find that NO metal plate would discharge? Because the voltages are LOW. Even the slightest film of grease or dirt could INSULATE against less than 3.2 volts.

And why did blue light work when red did not? The answer lay in Planck's electron voltages.

Einstein discovered that the effect varied with the TYPE of metal used for that plate. Each element, sodium, potassium, iron, copper, the noble metals such as platinum &c., had a unique voltage.

That voltage represented the energy that had to be present in the light in order to free the electrons.

That voltage became known as the WORK FUNCTION.

Knowing this, scientists began to research the forces that hold atoms together. In the technical literature, Einstein's name was cited so often that the Nobel Prize Committee could not ignore it.

So Einstein won the Nobel Prize.

It is true that further researches modified the simple model that scientists had used. For example, the particle model of Planck suggested that an ultra-violet ""PHOTON"" could travel for thousands of millions of years through space, retaining its 3.2 eV energy - and NEVER become two photons at 1.6 eV each.


But after that huge journey, it needs only for that photon to hit a suitable crystal and it does indeed divide. You get TWO photons for the price of ONE. This is only possible if the photon consists of NOTHING.

So the wave model of light began to supervene. Waves consist of nothing but a pattern. And questions were asked as to whether there is a SUBSTANCE in which the waves are formed. Does space consist of aether?

In some of my work I have reintroduced the concept of aether, but not as a SUBSTANCE. To me, there is a need for a grid of lines in space, for navigation. As on a map there is latitude and longitude (which are not substances), so in space we need a kind of latitude, longitude and altitude. Without that we get lost.

But the question of whether light is particles or waves was never resolved. Sometimes it behaves as one, and sometimes as the other.

Again, the concept that there is only one kind of charge-carrier has been overthrown. In solids there can be positive, negative or both.

A conductor conducts both charge-carriers. A vacuum conducts only the negative ones. So a vacuum is an N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR.

The discovery of semiconductors led to huge advances in the field of electronics. There are P-TYPE as well as N-TYPE semiconductors, and a remarkable symmetry of behaviour can be seen between them.

So light is like a particle in the VACUUM STATE, and shows the properties of a wave in the SOLID STATE.


My interest in these things is not amusement alone. Wherever profound discoveries are made, profound new benefits to Mankind become possible.

If a metal is used for that photocell plate, that needs 1.5 volts, and infra-red shines upon it at 1.7 eV, electrons emerge at 0.2 volts.

If the light is at 2.5 eV, the ""secondary electrons"" will have 1 volt of charge. If the light is blue, at 3 volts, the elctrons will have 1.5 volts. It is a simple subtraction process. That is Einstein's photoelectric effect.

So with a field plate charged to minus 0.2 volts, we can push back the ""infra-red electrons"". With minus 1 volt on the plate, we can push back the yellow ones. With minus 1.5 volts, we can push back even the blue electrons.

Infra-red electrons? Yellow electrons? Blue electrons? In reality, these things are not their colours but their speeds. For each electron retains the energy that was left over after the Einstein Work-Function was subtracted from the photon.

This makes the colour sensitivity of a digital image-sensor PROGRAMMABLE. Instead of having red, green and blue filters on an image sensor, we can have NO FILTERS.

Digital techniques are used to analyse the colour of the image. The benefits are enormous.

For example, we live in a world of daylight and artificial light. Daylight is rich in blue, tungsten light is rich in red. When the colour balance of the device depends not upon chemical filters with their fixed colours, but upon software, the device can better adapt to the lighting.

You can read about this new concept in CCD image sensor design at . Seven related inventions are also described, to help the design along.

Charles Douglas Wehner

About the author: Born in 1944, Charles Douglas Wehner was a factory manager, design engineer and technical author in photoelectrics.